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Gateway Biology

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Gateway - Biology

Interactive sites to help students practice skills needed for the Biology Gateway exam

Cells | Interactions | Photosynthesis and Respiration
Genetics and Biotechnology | Diversity | Biological Evolution

Tennessee Item Sampler | Gateway Assessment Item Sampler | Tennessee Practice Test This is an Adobe Acrobat .pdf document Indiana Item Sampler
Released tests - Texas Assessment of Academic Skills [EOC Biology] (TAAS) Spring 2002 | Spring 2001 | Spring 2000
Virginia SOL Biology 2000 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | This is an Adobe Acrobat document
[These expired links are available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the pages don't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]


Links verified on 1/21/2015




A resource for the teacher to use in planning their lessons site for teachers | A PowerPoint show related to this standard PowerPoint show | An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format Acrobat document | A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded Word document | This interactive site would work well on an interactive whiteboard whiteboard resource | This resource includes voice instructions for students sound | A video is available through this link video format | This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data interactive lesson | This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding a quiz | A lesson plan can be found at this site lesson plan | This link includes something for the teacher to print to print

 

Online Biology Book - every chapter is filled with great illustrations
Interactive Animations - Anatomy & Physiology I - Animations, Movies & Interactive Tutorial Links [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
Twelve Biology Lab Bench activities from Prentice Hall
Biology Animations - not all of the animations have English text associated with them

Standard 1 Cells
The student will investigate the structures and functions of cell membranes, organelles, and component biomolecules as related to cell processes.
Cells Alive
Level 1

Identify major cell organelles, given a diagram.

Distinguish between plant and animal cells given diagrams.

  1. 3D Cells - Learn about cell structure and function by viewing QuickTime movies and interacting with 3D worlds. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  2. An index of cell structure animations [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  3. Animal Cell Anatomy - a good clean drawing from Enchanted Learning
  4. Animal Cells or Plant Cells - Bacteria Cells - Roll your cursor over parts of a cell drawing to see the name, or follow a link for more information This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  5. Animal and Plant Cells - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  6. Animal Cell Quiz - If you answer all of the questions correctly you get to see a cell divide
  7. Clickable Eukaryotic Animal Cell - To identify each of the structures or organelles within these cells, click on the blue terms. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  8. Cell Biology A Virtual Tour This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  9. Cell Biology Animations - an index
  10. Cell Organelles and Their Functions - ten multiple-choice questions This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  11. Cell Structure - This site is part of a New York review site for their Regents exam.
  12. Cell Structure & Function Quiz - A basic quiz on the organelles and their function in the cell This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  13. Index of Cell Resources at Enchanted Learning - plants, animals, and bacteria (Caution : Some resources are only for members)
Predict the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane
  1. Diffusion and Osmosis - Not interactive, but this page provides good illustrations [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Diffusion and Osmosis from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall - several chapters, each with excellent animations This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  3. Diffusion, Osmosis, and Movement Across a Membrane - comprehensive explanation
  4. Membrane Transport - extensive explanation
  5. Movement Across Membranes - summary
  6. Movement of Molecules Across Cell Membranes - from Biology Online
  7. Movement Through the Plasma Membrane - explanation from Cliffs Notes
  8. Water and Solute Movement - transport in and out of cells
  9. Water Movement Across Membranes - fluid physiology
Sequence a series of diagrams depicting the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
  1. An index of Mitosis/Meiosis animations [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Animal Cell Mitosis - This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial - Interphase and Mitosis diagrams with a link to a mitosis movie at the bottom of the page.
  3. The Cell Cycle - Flash animation
  4. The Cell Cycle - Take this quiz to test your knowledge of how cells make more of themselves. This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  5. Cell Cycle Quiz - ten multiple-choice questions This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  6. How Cells Divide - a great interactive site from Nova This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data Learn the steps in mitosis with a set of excellent images.
  7. Learn the steps in mitosis with an interactive Java tutorial This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  8. Interactive Mitosis Tutorial - requires Shockwave [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  9. Mitosis animation - a follow up quiz is included This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  10. Mitosis Quiz - ten multiple-choice questions This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  11. Mitosis & Meiosis from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
Demonstrate appropriate use and care of compound light microscopes /td>
  1. Care and Use of the Compound Microscope - 10 page .pdf document with a good picture to use in a PowerPoint show or to make a transparency An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  2. Cleaning, Care, and Maintenance of Microscopes - optical microscopy primer
  3. The Compound Light Microscope
  4. Compound Microscopes - care and use of the microscope
  5. How to Use a Compound Microscope - includes instructions on focusing and things to do before putting the microscope away
  6. How To Use A Microscope Properly ! Tricks of the trade that were designed to make your life easier! [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  7. Micro*scope - a microscopic image database that contains over 6,500 images and over 3,000 descriptions [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  8. Microscope use and proper care from a science lab procedure tutorial
  9. Proper Use of the Microscope - a five page document to hand out An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  10. Using a Compound Light Microscope - eight page laboratory skills handout An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  11. Using a Compound Light Microscope - six page handout with lots of good diagrams, pre-lab discussion suggestions and concluding questions An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
Prepare wet mount slides
  1. Basic Wet Mount [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Dry mounts, wet mounts and staining
  3. Making a Wet Mount Microscope Slide - step by step instructions plus an eleven minute video on the process A video is available through this link
  4. Making Microscope Slides Yourself
  5. Microscope Lab - instructions for preparing two types of slides for this lab: a dry mount slide and a wet mount slide
  6. Microscope Slide Preparation - mounting specimens
  7. Microscope Slides Preparation - styles and techniques, plus using prepared microscope slides
  8. Wet Mount and Hanging Drop - The hanging drop and wet mount techniques allow for observation of living organisms
  9. Zebrina Leaf and a Wet Mount
Model or observe the movement of chromosomes during meiosis
  1. Cell Division, Mitosis, and Meiosis - comprehensive explanation accompanied by many good illustrations
  2. Chromosome Movements in Meiosis and Mitosis - fairly advanced PowerPoint show with an excellent demonstration and many good illustrations A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  3. An index of Mitosis/Meiosis animations - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  4. Meiosis - concise explanation from Biology Reference
  5. Meiosis - genetics basics
  6. Meiosis tutorial - This exercise is designed to help you understand the events that occur in process of meiosis, which takes place to produce our gametes.
  7. Meiotic chromosomes: it takes two to?tango - [advanced level] Meiosis is a special type of cell division that produces haploid gametes from diploid parental cells
Create a time line that traces the development of microscopes
  1. Antique microscopes
  2. Benjamin Martin, an Eighteenth Century English instrument maker , is considered one the greatest designers and manufacturers of microscopes of his time.
  3. A Brief History of the Microscope - From an eyeless lens in a tube to beams of electrons, Popular Mechanics zooms in on the microscope's high-definition past [slide show format]
  4. A Brief History of the Microscope - on the left side of the page you will find an extensive list of links to articles about the history of the microscope
  5. History of Microscopes - scroll past the microscopes for sale to the timeline
  6. History of the Microscope - from Vision Engineering
  7. The History of the Microscope
  8. Microscope - the first fourteen slides of this show are about Microscope History A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  9. Nobel E-Museum presents a microscope timeline
  10. Who Invented the Microscope
Level 2
Distinguish proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, given structural diagrams
  1. Biochemistry Notes - includes a large number of molecular diagrams
  2. Chemistry of Life - a University of Arizona web site
  3. The Chemistry of Living Things - includes molecular diagrams
  4. Organic Chemistry - includes a large number of molecular diagrams
  5. Organic Molecules - structural diagrams from Cliffs Notes
  6. Organic Molecules: Carbs, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids - This article covers the main categories of naturally occurring organic macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids
  7. Physical, Earth, and Space Science: An Integrated Approach - [27 slides] this PowerPoint slide show includes a large number of molecular diagrams A PowerPoint show related to this standard
Identify a positive test for carbohydrates and lipids when given an experimental procedure, data, and results
  1. Biological Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins - a lab sheet to print
  2. Biology Lab - In this lab you will learn to perform tests to detect the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  3. Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and how to test for the presence of these organic molecules
  4. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins - lesson plan A lesson plan can be found at this site
  5. Chemical Tests for Sugar, Starch, Lipids, and Proteins Lab - a lab activity
  6. Identifying Macromolecules in Food - [21 slides] introduction to a lab A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  7. Identifying Organic Compounds - In this investigation, you will determine which macromolecules are components of the foods you eat. Substances, called indicators, can be used to test for the presence of organic compound An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  8. Testing for Life's Molecules - lesson plan An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  9. Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates - a Science and Health Education Partnership lesson plan A lesson plan can be found at this site
Distinguish between active and passive transport, given examples of different molecules /td>
  1. Active and Passive Transport - a comparison
  2. Active and Passive Transport in the Kidneys - processes occurring in the mammalian kidney
  3. Active and Passive Transport in the Kidneys - distinguishes between passive and active transport and describes how these two mechanisms work in the functioning of the kidney
  4. Active Transport: Energy to Transport - explanation from Biology4Kids
  5. An index of a dozen cellular transport animations [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  6. Comparison of passive and active transport
  7. The Difference Between Passive and Active Transport - [50 cards] - flashcards as review homework. a complete set of the questions and answers can be found on a single page.
  8. Diffusion and Osmosis - a 20 slide presentation is embedded in this Biology Corner explanation
  9. Interactive Passive or Active Transport This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  10. Membrane Structure and Function - [19 slides] this PowerPoint show includes a discussion of cotransport (secondary active transport) A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  11. Membrane Transport - advanced explanation from Oregon State University
  12. Movement Across Membranes - [40 slides] this PowerPoint show includes many good illustrations, each set of images is followed by questions (and then answers) for students to attemptA PowerPoint show related to this standard
  13. Passive and Active Transport - a Flash video presentation A video is available through this link
  14. Passive and Active Transport - [40 page document] most pages of this advanced level document contain excellent illustrations An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  15. Passive and Active Transport - this tutorial from Penn State discusses how small molecules such as ions and sugars are transported across membranes
  16. Passive and Active Transport - flashcards followed by a chance to memorize which is then followed by a quiz
  17. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis - a short Flash video with a tab for an available quiz A video is available through this link This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  18. Passive Transport: Taking the Easy Road - explanation from Biology4Kids
  19. Passive Transport Versus Active Transport
  20. Selective Permeability - Selective permeability means that the cell membrane has some control over what can cross it, so that only certain molecules either enter or leave the cell.  Molecules can cross the plasma membrane in three main ways.
  21. Transport Can Be Active or Passive - this seven page document shows all 40 slides of a presentation An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  22. What Is the Difference Between Active and Passive Transport Processes? - explanation from eHow
  23. What is Diffusion - this pre lab explanation includes a video of diffusion in hot or cold water and is followed by nine questions, hints are available This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
Determine the number of chromosomes following mitosis or meiosis, given the number of chromosomes in the original cell
  1. Building Blocks of Life - from Ask a Biologist at Arizona State University
  2. The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis - from the Virtual Genetics Education Centre (a UK site)
  3. Cell Division, Mitosis, and Meiosis - lecture material online
  4. Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis - View the animation, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept. A video is available through this link This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  5. A diagram comparing and contrasting mitosis and meiosis
  6. E-LAB-Mitosis and Meiosis - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  7. How do Cells Divide? - Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells.
  8. Meiosis - explanation from Cliffs Notes
  9. Meiosis : Mitosis - from GeneEd (Genetics Education, Discovery) - each explanation is followed by a set of links to other pages related to the topic covered
  10. Meiosis in Action - A video is available through this link [5:27] Flash video, a link is available to a text version of the narrative
  11. Meiosis Quiz - multiple choice quiz from Cliffs Notes
  12. Meiosis Tutorial - number of chromosomes following mitosis This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  13. Mitosis and Meiosis - from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall - several chapters, each with excellent animations This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  14. Mitosis and Meiosis - lecture notes and associated microscope photographs
  15. Mitosis and Meiosis - a four-page document to print as a handout An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  16. Mitosis in Action - A video is available through this link [6:10] Flash video, a link is available to a text version of the narrative
  17. Mitosis and Meiosis - Biology 100 lab from Millersville University (PA)
  18. Mitosis - Meiosis Review - posted by the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota
  19. Mitosis v Meiosis - this five-page document makes a good student handout An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  20. Mitosis vs Meiosis - from a page about the cell cycle, cellular growth, and cancer
  21. Replication and Distribution of DNA During Meiosis - from a Nature Education site
Recognize the significance of homeostasis to the viability of humans and other organisms, given the definition of homeostasis
  1. Body Systems and Homeostasis - summary of how the body's systems function and how various regulatory mechanisms allow each system to contribute to homeostasis
  2. Definition of Homeostasis - explanation from MedicineNet
  3. Homeostasis - [3:40] a Kahn Academy biology video A video is available through this link
  4. Homeostasis - a Wikipedia article
  5. Homeostasis - Encyclopedia Britannica article
  6. Homeostasis and Negative Feedback - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  7. Homeostasis - Control Systems - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  8. Human Physiology/Homeostasis - a WikiBooks article
  9. Review of homeostasis - by the New York Regents Exam review site
  10. Regulation - It's All About Homeostasis - from Biology4Kids
Calculate the ratio of cell surface area to cell volume
  1. Limitations on Cell Size: Surface Area to Volume - an evaluation copy of a Vernier lab activity An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  2. Modeling limits to cell size - a lab
  3. The Problem of Size - in order to survive, cells must constantly interact with their surrounding environment
  4. SA/V Ratio and Rate of Diffusion - a lab posted by NSTA
  5. The Sizes of Living Things - Thinking about the Surface Area [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  6. Sizes Of Organisms: The Surface Area:Volume Ratio - Changes in the surface area to volume ratio have important implications for limits or constraints on organism size
  7. Surface Area to Volume Ratio - one page to print and use as a handout An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  8. Surface Area to Volume Ratio - explanation of the math behind this important biological concept An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  9. The Surface Area to Volume Ratio of a Cell - description of a lab activity
  10. Surface to Volume Ratios: Relationship to Cell Size - As cells increase in size, the surface area and volume do not usually increase proportionally to length An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  11. Using Math to Talk About Cells - surface-to-volume ratios in biology An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  12. Why Cells are Small: Surface Area to Volume Ratios - lab activity to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  13. Why is Surface-to-Volume Ratio So Important In Biology? - explanation of this fundamental biological concept
  14. Why Must a Cell Divide - why don’t the cells just get bigger instead of getting more of them?
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Standard 2 Interactions
The student will investigate the interactions of organisms with their environment through different relationships, population dynamics, and patterns of behavior.
Level 1

Identify commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism, given a scenario with examples.

  1. Commensalism - a class of relationships between two organisms where one organism benefits from the other without affecting it
  2. Examples of Symbiosis - definitions and examples of four types of symbiosis
  3. Mutualism and commensalism - simple definitions and a list of links to use [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  4. Relationships Between Organisms - four basic types of relationships that living things have with one another
  5. Symbiotic Relationships: Mutualism, Commensalism & Parasitism - this explanation includes a short video and a link to a quiz A video is available through this link This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  6. Symbiosis
  7. Symbiosis - refers to organisms that live in close approximation; often one cannot live without the other
  8. Symbiosis, Commensalism, Mutualism and Parasitism - examples in nature of two organisms living in close association with each other
Classify organisms as producers, consumers, or decomposers, given their behaviors and environment.
  1. Classification of Producers, Consumers and Decomposers - text only
  2. Consumers and Decomposers - the site includes classification of consumers, and includes a short video on decomposers A video is available through this link
  3. Food Chain - colorful page to print for students An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  4. Forest Energy Scavenger Hunt - lesson plan to print A lesson plan can be found at this site An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  5. Fungus Among Us - a class activity for 5th to 8th grades An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  6. Marine Food Webs - includes a good food pyramid diagram
  7. Parts of the Food Chain - producers, consumers and decomposers
  8. Producers, Consumer, or Decomposers Game - when the plant or animal appear click on the correct button
  9. What Are Producers and Consumers - lesson review to print for your students An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
Describe the niche and habitat of an organism in an ecosystem.
  1. Animals: Populations, Ecosystems, Habitats and Niches - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [42 slides] PowerPoint Presentation
  2. The Difference Between An Organism's Habitat And Its Ecological Niche - a flashcard set with 48 terms
  3. Ecological Niche - Wikipedia entry
  4. The Ecological Niche - ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does
  5. Ecological Niches - part of the Habitat Planet set from Annenberg Learner
  6. Ecosystems, Biomes, and Habitats -  Any group of living and nonliving things interacting with each other can be considered as an ecosystem.
  7. Ecosystems, Habitats and Ecological Niches - explanation, a video, and a quiz A video is available through this link
  8. Ecosystems, Habitats and Niches - a two-page handout from Discovery Education An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  9. Ecology, Ecosystem, Biosphere, Habitat - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [20 slides] this PowerPoint Presentation includes several slides with questions for your students (Learning Checks)
  10. Environmental Studies/Ecosystem - a Wikibooks entry
  11. The Forest Ecosystem: Habitat and Niche - this explanation includes a short video that reviews the differences between populations, habitats and niches A video is available through this link
  12. Habitat - Wikipedia entry
  13. Habitat and Niche - [58 slides] a slide presentation in .pdf format An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  14. Habitat and Niche - explanation followed by a short video and review questions A video is available through this link
  15. Interactions in the Ecosystem - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [40 slides] PowerPoint Presentation
  16. Introduction to Ecology - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [28 slides] PowerPoint Presentation
  17. Niche and Habitat - how organisms interact with each other and with their physical environment
  18. Organisms and their Environment - a summary sheet from Scott Foresman
  19. Populations - test review page from Regents Prep
Level 2
Determine the effects of human activities on ecosystems
  1. Africa Ecological Footprint Report - [72 page document] An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  2. Ecosystem Change - What actions could be taken to limit harmful consequences of ecosystem degradation?
  3. Global Warming - from the U. S. EPA [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  4. How Do Human Activities Affect Ecosystems? - [12 page document] this colorful handout includes a page of review questions at the end An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  5. How Do We Affect the Ecosystem - Our actions tend to affect not just our surroundings, but the world at large
  6. Human Activities that Affect the Ecosystem - When humans over-hunt key predators such as lions, tigers and bears, they remove the very animals that keep plant consumers in balance and prevent overgrazing.
  7. Human Activities That Affect the Ecosystem - Most human activities, such as agriculture, industry, fishing and mining affect the ecosystem in a negative way, especially when performed in an excessive and unsustainable way. (from eHow)
  8. Human Impact on Ecosystems - [53 pages] a unit plan designed for grades 5-8, from the Henry Ford Foundation An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  9. Human Influences on Aquatic Ecosystems - Human activities affecting aquatic ecosystems are more likely to disrupt natural patterns and processes because species do not have the ability to adapt to the rapid changes to their environment that can occur.
  10. Infrared Map of the Earth - Greenhouse Effect
  11. Paleo Perspective on Global Warming
  12. Scientific Mission: Reduce the Environmental Effects of Human Activities and Create Sustainable Systems - a report from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a division of the U S Department of Energy
  13. Tundra - effects of human activities and climate change [from Encyclopaedia Britannica]
  14. Warnings from the Ice - from NOVA
Level 3
Investigate factors that influence Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  1. 5 Factors Affecting Genetic Equilibrium: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Theory - major factors which affect the genetic equilibrium and induce the variability in population
  2. Bean There, Done That: A Hardy-Weinberg Simulation - a lab activity to print This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  3. Evolutionary Factors - a lab activity to print This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  4. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Model
  5. Human Genetics - [25 questions] a multiple-choice quiz This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  6. Java applets illustrating gene dropping - There are two applets, each contain the same ten pedigrees. [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  7. Microevolution and Macroevolution - how to demonstrate the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  8. Modern Synthesis - The Hardy-Weinberg equation expresses an ideal distribution of genotypes within a population, assuming that the gene frequencies are known.
  9. Population and Evolutionary Genetics - The Hardy-Weinberg Law
  10. The Teacher Friendly Guide to Evolution - various mechanisms within a lineage can affect the genetic variation
  11. Understanding a Gene Pool - You will make a model gene pool based on an initial assumed population, collect data to test the Hardy-Weinberg principle, compare your data to predictions in a cross-multiplication table, and use a model gene pool to examine the change in allele frequencies caused by harmful genotypes in a given environment. [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
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Standard 3 Photosynthesis and Respiration
The student will compare and contrast the biochemical processes involved in the transfer of energy during photosynthesis and respiration and analyze the major chemical cycles in the biosphere.
Level 1

Identify the reactants and products of photosynthesis and respiration, given the equations

  1. An index of cellular respiration animations [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Biology Review Packet - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [2 pages] explanation of key points followed by a set of questions for independent practice
  3. The Energy Relationships in Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis : the Balance Sheet
  4. Modeling Products & Reactants of Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [4 pages] lab activity to print, pages 3 and 4 have fifteen questions for your students to answer.
  5. The Photosynthetic Process - extensive explanation of all parts of the process
  6. Photosynthesis - a large document with lots of good illustrations
  7. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [49 slides] this PowerPoint presentation contains a large number of excellent illustrations
  8. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - what students need to know about the topic, followed by eight sample questions (answers are provided) - posted by the Escambia County School District, Pensacola, FL
  9. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flashcards - nineteen terms, available in several formats
  10. Photosynthesis and Respiration Compared - a well illustrated, two-page document to print for your students This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  11. Photosynthesis: How Life Keeps Going ...and Going - from an Exploring Science and Technology website
  12. Photosynthesis Investigation Study Guide - instructions for preparing a photosynthesis light response curve
  13. Photosynthetic Pigments - the three basic classes of pigments
  14. Photosynthesis Problem Set - The objectives of this problem set are to test your understanding of how light energy is converted into different forms of chemical energy during photosynthesis [The problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem]
  15. Photosynthesis Science Lesson - In this lesson you will: Interpret diagrams that describe the process of photosynthesis, examine the ingredients and products of photosynthesis, and identify producers and consumers in the food web. [eleven multiple-choice questions] This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  16. Photosynthesis Study Guide - No answers, but good review questions to test your knowledge.
  17. Taste the Rainbow! - [14 page lab activity] Using Skittles to explore the chemistry of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
Identify the cell organelle in which photosynthesis occurs, given a diagram of a plant
  1. Building Blocks of Life - from the Ask a Biologist program at Arizona State University
  2. Cell Organelles: The Chloroplast This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  3. Chloroplasts - All of the green structures in plants, including stems and unripened fruit, contain chloroplasts, but the majority of photosynthesis activity in most plants occurs in the leaves.
  4. Photosynthetic Cells - a Nature Education article
  5. Photosynthesis: The Big Picture - some basic questions & answers about photosynthesis
  6. Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis - from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall - several chapters, each with excellent animations This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
Interpret a diagram of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle, given a diagram
  1. The Biological/Geological Cycle - mouseover the pictures and arrows in the two diagrams to learn more
  2. The Carbon Cycle - from the Windows to the Universe site [click on the diagram to make it larger]
  3. The Carbon Dioxide-Oxygen Cycle - a teaching activity This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  4. Carbon/Oxygen Cycle - explanation followed by a large, colorful diagram
  5. Carbon: Where Does it All Go? - from The Living Ocean series
  6. Closing the Loop: Recycling Water and Air in Space - lesson plan from NASA, includes a link to a video to use with this lesson This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  7. An Environmental Puzzle: the Carbon Cycle - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [15 page document] lesson plan with a puzzle to print
  8. Global Ecology - carbon and changes in land use
  9. Going in Cycles - [26 page document] unit plan which includes many diagrams This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  10. Living in the Greenhouse - the carbon cycle
  11. Natural Cycles - nutrient cycling - the bio/geo-chemical cycles[includes six excellent diagrams]
  12. Oxygen and Carbon Cycles - explanation followed by ten questions for students to answer
  13. Oxygen- Carbon Dioxide Cycle - a student resource information sheet This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  14. Planetary Science - includes a discussion of the human (and other) role(s) in the carbon cycle
  15. The Residual Carbon Sink - an investigation from Woods Hole Research Center
  16. Understanding the Global Carbon Cycle - The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems.
Identify and explore the chloroplasts in a leaf such as Elodea
  1. Chloroplast Movement in Plant Cells: Stirring the Pot & Avoiding the Sun - [1:55] One of the fun things to observe using a light microscope is the movement of chloroplasts around the cell, especially in the plant Elodea. A video is available through this link
  2. Chloroplasts: A Look at the Elodea Leaf - [3:24] YouTube video A video is available through this link
  3. Chloroplasts of Elodea - scroll down to see four images of chloroplasts in Elodea
  4. Elodea Explorations - a lab activity from the Exploratorium - two videos related to the lab A video is available through this link
  5. Elodea Lab - two-page lab activity to print for students This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  6. Elodea Lab - lab report including nine images in a slide show format
  7. Elodea (Pondweed) Cells - a lab activity for examining Elodea with a microscope - includes a labeled image of an Elodea cell
  8. Exploring Cells - [12 pages] unit plan with four lab activities from Carolina Curriculum
  9. Fully Automated Tracking of Chloroplasts in Elodea Leaf Cells from 4D Image Data - interesting images from the microscope company Leica
  10. An index of Elodea images - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  11. Light Microscope: Definition, Uses & Parts - includes an excellent image of chloroplasts in Elodea
  12. Photosynthesis: The Original Green Energy - this Home Science Tools lab activity includes the tip that Elodea (pondweed) can be found at pet stores
  13. A resource for the teacher to use in planning their lessonsPhotosynthesis Experiments - includes ordinary level as well as higher level experiments
  14. Photosynthesis Lab - Elodea and Bromothymol Blue - three-page lab activity for students This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  15. Plant Cell Lab - lab activity to print for students - answer key for the lab
  16. Plasmolysis in Elodea Plant Cells - lesson plan from Science NetLinks, includes locations to purchase the Elodea
  17. Using Elodea as a Live Model of the Eukaryotic Cell - Using this lesson plan from NSTA instructors can manipulate live cells in class and do demonstrations tailored to their instructional needs or teaching goals.
  18. Video Gallery: Cyclosis in Canadian Pondweed (Elodea) - A real time video clip in brightfield using a Russian achromatic 20x (NA 0.40) objective and 10x eyepiece. A video is available through this link
Model or illustrate the paths of water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide through a plant
  1. Gas Exchange - Gas exchange occurs as a result of respiration, when carbon dioxide is excreted and oxygen taken up, and photosynthesis, when oxygen is excreted and carbon dioxide is taken up
  2. Gas Exchange in Plants - green plants need a supply of carbon dioxide and a means of disposing of oxygen
  3. The Movement of Water in Plants - how water is transported into and up through a plant
  4. Movement of Water and Minerals in the Xylem - Transpiration aids in the movement of water and minerals in the xylem, but it must be controlled in order to prevent water loss.
  5. Nitrogen and the Hydrologic Cycle - Ohio State University Extension fact sheet
  6. The Nitrogen Cycle - from the Windows to the Universe series
  7. Plant Growth Factors - photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration
  8. Plant Transport Mechanisms -
  9. Transpiration - transpiration in a tall tree
  10. Transpiration - transfer of water from plants to the atmosphere
  11. Transpiration: Major Plant Highlights - details to support a lesson
  12. Transpiration: Water Movement Through Plants - This lesson and its animation follows the journey of water through a plant from its uptake by roots to its evaporation from the leaf surface.
  13. Transpiration: Water Movement through Plants - [10 pages]This lesson will explain why plants lose so much water, the path water takes through plants, how plants might control for too much water loss to avoid stress conditions, and how the environment plays a role in water loss from plants. (text version) This link includes something for the teacher to print An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  14. Transport of Materials in a Flowering Plant - explanation accompanied by several good illustrations
  15. Transport in Plants - this article includes links to other related resources
  16. Transportation in the Plant - most of this page deals with transportation of water through a plant, but near the bottom of the page you will find transportation of nutrients through the plant
  17. Water Balance in Plants - four page lesson followed by two questions
  18. Water Movement Into Plants - excellent animation of the process A video is available through this link
  19. Water Movement Through a Plant - the important role that water plays in the process of photosynthesis
  20. Water Movement Through a Root - [6:51] a YouTube video A video is available through this link
Level 2
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration in terms of the presence or absence of oxygen and ATP produced
  1. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - Most of plants and animal cells respire aerobically, that is, in the presence of oxygen. However, there are certain microbes that respire in the absence of free oxygen.
  2. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - an interactive, animated exploration of cellular respiration [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  3. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - There are two main types of respiration: aerobic and anaerobic. This article will give you a good understanding of these two processes, and also list the major differences between them.
  4. Aerobic Respiration - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  5. Aerobic Respiration Equation - The process of aerobic respiration for both plants and animals is exactly the same.
  6. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration - comparison of the two processes
  7. Anaerobic Respiration - respiration in animals and plants
  8. Anaerobic/Aerobic Respiration - [28 terms] flash cards in a variety of formats
  9. Cell Respiration - from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall - several chapters, each with excellent animations This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  10. Difference Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration -Cellular respiration is a special process where cells produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
  11. Difference Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - short description of the differences between the two processes
  12. An index of cellular respiration animations - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  13. Respiration - Respiration takes place in every living cell, all of the time and all cells need to respire in order to produce the energy that they require.
  14. Respiration in Plants - [11 pages] explanation, diagrams and 32 review exercises to conclude the lesson An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
Relate the interdependence of the processes of photosynthesis and respiration to living organisms, given a diagram or a description
  1. Cell Energetics - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [81 page document] unit lesson plan dealing with photosynthesis and respiration
  2. Cell Energy - this site has many diagrams related to photosynthesis and respiration
  3. Cell Energy Review - thirty multiple-choice questions to use as student review, answers are given This link includes something for the teacher to print This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  4. Effects of a Closed Environment on Living Things - We must understand the interdependent relationships between photosynthesis and animal respiration before we can proceed in developing systems that will allow long term survival in space.
  5. Illuminating Photosynthesis - a closer look at the oxygen/carbon dioxide cycle and the process of photosynthesis
  6. Interdependence of Living Organisms - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [22 slides] at the end of this slide show there are questions for your students
  7. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - how these processes are linked to each other, and the points of differences between them
  8. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [49 slides] this PowerPoint presentation contains a large number of excellent illustrations
  9. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - what students need to know about the topic, followed by eight sample questions (answers are provided) - posted by the Escambia County School District, Pensacola, FL
  10. Photosynthesis, Respiration and Interdependence - from Maggie's Science Connection
  11. Photosynthesis vs Respiration - Photosynthesis and respiration are reactions that complement each other in the environment. They are in reality the same reactions but occurring in reverse.
Construct charts comparing reactants, products, and energy transfer in photosynthesis and respiration
  1. Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - this page of explanation includes two clickable images so students can see more detail on each chart
  2. Comparison of Photosynthesis and Respiration - simple table contrasting the two processes
  3. Connecting Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - information to help students get ready to construct a chart
  4. Create Graphic Organizers Using Excel - several Internet4Classrooms tutorials
  5. Energy in a Cell - compares photosynthesis and cellular respiration, students must arrange steps in correct order This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  6. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - this site includes many excellent images
  7. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration - a presentation including the You Tube video, "There's a Party in my Tummy." A video is available through this link
  8. Photosynthesis and Respiration - [3:47] A video which examines photosynthesis and respiration and their roles in supporting all life on the planet A video is available through this link
  9. Photosynthesis: Fall's Most Valuable Lesson - information from Education World for ideas regarding charts
  10. Photosynthesis, the beginning of energy's flow through life
Sequence the major events of cellular respiration and anaerobic respiration
  1. Anaerobic Cellular Respiration - Some prokaryotes use anaerobic respiration in which they can create energy for use in the absence of oxygen.
  2. Anaerobic Respiration - a Wikipedia entry
  3. Cell Respiration Explained - information presented in a question and answer format
  4. Cell Respiration Part 1: Anaerobic Respiration (Glycolysis and Fermentation) - Anaerobic reactions occur in the cytoplasm of the cell and aerobic reactions occur in the mitochondria of the cells.
  5. Cell Respiration Part 2: Aerobic Respiration (Transition Reaction & Kreb’s Citric Acid Cycle) - If there’s oxygen, the pyruvate’s go into the mitochondria because aerobic respiration occurs only there.
  6. Cellular Respiration - the biochemical pathway by which cells release energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules and provide that energy for the essential processes of life
  7. Cellular Respiration - [65 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  8. Cellular Respiration - Cellular respiration is the process by which cells get their energy in the form of ATP.
  9. Cellular Respiration - explanation from Cliffs Notes
  10. Cellular Respiration - [23 terms] flash cards in several formats
  11. Cellular Respiration - How one good meal provides energy for the work of 75 trillion cells.
  12. Cellular Respiration - a review from PinkMonkey.com
  13. Overview of Cellular Respiration - Clickable map for brief explanations
  14. Respiration Processes - introduction to biology: molecules and cells
Level 3
Compare the efficiency of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  1. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - lesson from BBC
  2. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - This article will give a good understanding of these two processes, and also list the major differences between them.
  3. Aerobic respiration is by far the most efficient method - lecture about the efficiency of aerobic respiration [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  4. Aerobic vs Anaerobic Processes - Which route the cells take to create the ATP depends solely on whether or not there is enough oxygen present to undergo aerobic respiration.
  5. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration - a comparison
  6. Anaerobic Respiration: ATP, New Fuels, and Yogurt without Oxygen - lesson plan from cK-12 A lesson plan can be found at this site
  7. Breathing and Respiration - a detailed look at both types of respiration
  8. Catabolism: aerobic & anaerobic respiration
  9. Cellular Respiration - a Wikipedia entry
  10. Cellular Respiration - Cellular respiration is the process by which cells get their energy in the form of ATP.
  11. Compare the Efficiencies of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - information provided from an Answer site
  12. Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration - the release of chemical energy for cellular use
  13. Respiration - [8 questions] aerobic and anaerobic respiration, multiple-choice test This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  14. Respiration - Biology 101 lecture notes
  15. Similarities of Aerobic & Anaerobic Respiration - Despite significant differences, these processes have some important features in common.
  16. What Are the Differences Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - basic information about the two processes
Produce concept maps of the major events occurring in the light dependent and light independent reactions
  1. Light Dependent Reactions - The first reactions of photosynthesis require light energy, and are called light dependant reactions.
  2. Light-Dependent Reactions - a Wikipedia entry
  3. Light Independent Reactions - These reactions can occur in the light or the dark. They need ATP for energy to drive the reactions, and they need NADPH for reducing power.
  4. Light-Independent Reactions - a Wikipedia entry
  5. Light-Independent Reactions of Photosynthesis - the light-independent reactions are a series of reactions that make up a biochemical cycle called the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle (also sometimes called the reductive pentose phosphate cycle).
  6. The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis - Pass the mouse pointer over the diagram for more information
  7. The Light-Independent Reactions of Photosynthesis - Pass the mouse pointer over the diagram for more information.
  8. Light Reaction: The Map - an image map with clickable areas This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  9. Photosynthesis - student guide which explains both processes, and gives a concept map as part of the explanation
  10. Photosynthesis - [a Biology 100 lecture] The photosynthesis reactions can be broken down into two components: the light-dependent reactions (the "light" reactions) and the light-independent reactions (the "dark" reactions).
  11. Photosynthesis: Light-Dependent and Independent Reaction - [6:05] a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  12. Photosynthesis Light Dependent and Independent Reactions - [17:18] a chapter overview in video format from You Tube A video is available through this link
  13. Photosynthesis: Light-dependent and Light-independent Reactions - [6:11] shorter overview in video format from You Tube A video is available through this link
  14. Photosynthesis: Light Reactions - [20:16] a Kahn academy video; use the index to the left for other videos related to the subject A video is available through this link
  15. Relationship between the Light Dependent and Light Independent reactions
  16. What process limits the rate of photosynthesis at low light levels
Recognize the transfer of energy from respiration to cellular work, given an equation or diagram of the ATP cycle
  1. Adenoside Triphosphate - explanation plus a diagram
  2. ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [31 slides]
  3. The ATP Cycle - [9:34] You Tube video A video is available through this link
  4. ATP Notes Outline - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [7 page document] the steps for the ATP-ADP Cycle
  5. Cellular Respiration -  the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water
  6. Cellular Respiration - a Wikipedia entry
  7. Cellular Respiration - Cellular respiration is the process by which cells get their energy in the form of ATP.
  8. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Energy From Food - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [36 slides] this slide show has a large numbers of good images
  9. Cellular Respiration: The Big Picture - Flash animation covering glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transfer A video is available through this link
  10. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells - video followed by a quiz A video is available through this link This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  11. Compare the Efficiencies of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - information provided from an Answer site
  12. Cellular Respiration (Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain - basic concepts and biodiversity information from Penn State
  13. Energy in Cells - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [77 slides] Caution: this PowerPoint show contains misspellings, edit before showing to your class
  14. The Energy Relationships in Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - the Balance Sheet
  15. Eukaryotic Cell Interactive Animation - select plant cell or animal cell to begin the animation
  16. Using Chemical Energy to Drive Metabolism
return to the top of the page
Standard 4 Genetics and Biotechnology
The student will investigate the concepts of genetics and heredity, different methods of reproduction, patterns of inheritance, and genetic disorders; as well as, explore and evaluate DNA technologies from both a scientific and ethical perspective.

Genetics Education Center - for educators interested in human genetics and the human genome project
DNA Interactive - includes an interactive timeline and 15 lesson plans

Level 1
Distinguish between asexual and sexual methods of reproduction
  1. Asexual and Sexual Reproduction - this BBC site includes a short video A video is available through this link
  2. Asexual or Sexual is the Question - There are two types of reproduction. Sexual and Asexual. To really understand what those words mean this site breaks them apart.
  3. Asexual Reproduction vs Sexual Reproduction - includes a comparison in the form of a table
  4. Asexual Reproduction - from the New York Regents Test prep site
  5. Both Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Involve Cell Division - colorful handout to give to students An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  6. Sex and Evolution - this Natural History Museum page includes a short video comparing the two types of reproduction A video is available through this link
  7. Sexual Reproduction - from the New York Regents Test prep site
  8. Two Methods of Reproduction - explanation with simple diagrams followed by a summary of differences
  9. What the Difference between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction? - explanation from EDinformatics
Identify the dominant trait, given the results of a monohybrid cross
  1. Are Your Genetic Traits Dominant Or Recessive? -  Find out what some of your common traits are by taking this quiz
  2. Dominant and Recessive Characteristics - Characteristics in the left-hand column dominate over those characteristics listed in the right-hand column.
  3. Dominant vs. Recessive - explains how you know what traits are dominant or recessive
  4. Genetic Crosses - slide show about monohybrid crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  5. Gregor Mendel - brief bio followed by explanation of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
  6. Mendelian Genetics - genotypes vs. phenotypes
  7. Mendel's Experiment on Hybridization and Monohybrid Cross - [25 slides]
  8. Mendel's Monohybrid Cross - Mendel bred garden peas in his monastery garden and analyzed the offspring of these matings
  9. Mendel’s Monohybrid Crosses - summary of Mendel’s first series of crosses An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  10. Monohybrid Cross - a Wikipedia entry
  11. Monohybrid Cross - problem 1, how to set up a Punnett square, accompanied by a tutorial
  12. Monohybrid Cross and Dihybrid Cross Representations - diagrams of both from Encyclopaedia Britannica
  13. Monohybrid Cross Problem Set - The following problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem.
  14. Monohybrid Cross - an interesting interactive site [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  15. Predicting the Results of Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses - [14 pages] slide show about crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  16. Solving a Genetic Mystery - a list of phenotypes easily identified in humans that follow the pattern of Mendelian inheritance
  17. What are Dominant and Recessive? - from the Genetic Science Learning Center
Determine the genotype and phenotype of a monohybrid cross, given a Punnett square
  1. Dragon Genetics . This activity explores the relationship between genotype and phenotype, using both sex-linked and autosomal dominant and recessive traits. By manipulating alleles (genotype), you create corresponding changes in the dragon's physical appearance (phenotype). This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  2. Genetic Crosses - slide show about monohybrid crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  3. Greenomes - laboratory and bioinformatics exercises to introduce students to modern plant genetics This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  4. Gregor Mendel - brief bio followed by explanation of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
  5. How to Use a Punnett Square to Do a Monohybrid Cross - A Punnett square is a method for determining the theoretical genotypic ratios comparison of the offspring of a cross between two parents (to sort out the sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring) [from wikiHow]
  6. Mendel's Peas Web Lab - The Princess and the Wrinkled Peas. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  7. Model For A Monohybrid Cross Exhibiting Simple Dominance - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  8. Modern Explanation of Mendel’s Results - With our modern understanding of genes, chromosomes, and cellular reproduction, we can explain the biological basis of Mendel’s observations and make pretty accurate predictions about the offspring that any given cross (short for crossbreeding) will produce.
  9. Monohybrid Cross Problem Set: Problem 1 - the monohybrid cross [from the Biology Project]
  10. Monohybrid Crosses - Flash animation, after the video students can practice This resource includes voice instructions for students This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  11. Monohybrid Crosses and The Punnett Square Lesson Plan - Students will simulate a monohybrid cross between two heterozygous parents and utilize the experimental data to develop a Punnett Square for the prediction of the offspring. A lesson plan can be found at this site An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  12. Monohybrid Practice Problems - [worksheet] show Punnett square, give genotype and phenotype for each on your own paper. An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  13. Predicting Phenotypes and Genotypes - This tutorial will teach you how to predict the segregation of alleles in the formation of gametes by parents that are heterozygous for different characters.
  14. The Punnett Square Approach for a Monohybrid Cross - A Punnett square applies the rules of probability to predict the possible outcomes of a monohybrid cross and their expected frequencies.
  15. Punnett Square - a Wikipedia entry
  16. Punnett Square Calculator -  a Punnett Square predicts the probability of a cross producing each genotype
  17. Punnett Squares - a virtual laboratory This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  18. Punnett Squares - Punnett squares made easy
  19. Punnett Squares: Monohybrid, Dihybrid and Sex-Linked Crosses - Punnett squares worksheet An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  20. Solving Genetics Problems: Monohybrid Crosses - All genetics problems are solved using the same basic logic structure. If you learn the sense of the approach, you can solve virtually any genetics problem, provided you are given enough basic information.
  21. What about two traits? - [43 slides] dihybrid crosses -slide show about dihybrid crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
Construct a model of DNA
  1. Build a Paper Model of DNA - two-page .pdf document with instructions and pieces to print and assemble An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  2. Computer Model of the DNA Helix
  3. Constructing a DNA Model - Constructing DNA models is a great way to learn about DNA structure, function and replication.
  4. DNA Model Project - [19:31] This You Tube video shows you how to create a model of DNA using a paper towel roll, markers, and glue A video is available through this link
  5. Double Helix DNA Molecule - a list of materials and instructions for the project
  6. Extract Your Own DNA - You can see your own DNA with the unaided eye. Using this simple PowerPoint, your students will learn how to extract and view their own DNA. (easy-to-follow instructions for a great, hands-on learning experience) [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  7. Have Your DNA and Eat It Too - lesson plan which includes instructions on making a DNA model from common materials An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  8. How to make a model of DNA - This model can be tough to make, but well worth the effort. You'll learn some great science along the way too! [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  9. How to Make a DNA Double Helix from Jelly Babies and Liquorice - the instructions are followed by instructions on how to extract DNA from kiwi fruit
  10. How to Make a Model of DNA Using Common Materials - Using common household materials, you can make your own model combining science and crafts for a great project
  11. An index of DNA replication animations - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  12. Make a Candy Model of DNA - (learn how the nucleotides are formed, and how it all fits together) This model can be used to show replication, splicing, and other functions involving the DNA double helix. [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  13. Making a Model of DNA - questions, pieces to cut-out and instructions on how to make the model An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  14. The Nucleic Acids - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  15. Origami DNA - This hands-on activity allows you to create your own paper model of a DNA double helix. Includes a short video. A video is available through this link
Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits given the results of a monohybrid cross
  1. Are Your Genetic Traits Dominant Or Recessive? -  Find out what some of your common traits are by taking this quiz
  2. Dominant and Recessive Characteristics - Characteristics in the left-hand column dominate over those characteristics listed in the right-hand column.
  3. Dominant and Recessive Traits - a worksheet
  4. Dominant vs. Recessive - explains how you know what traits are dominant or recessive
  5. Genetic Crosses - slide show about monohybrid crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  6. Gregor Mendel - brief bio followed by explanation of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
  7. Mendelian Genetics - genotypes vs. phenotypes
  8. Mendel's Experiment on Hybridization and Monohybrid Cross - [25 slides]
  9. Mendel's Monohybrid Cross - Mendel bred garden peas in his monastery garden and analyzed the offspring of these matings
  10. Mendel’s Monohybrid Crosses - summary of Mendel’s first series of crosses An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  11. Monohybrid Cross - a Wikipedia entry
  12. Monohybrid Cross - problem 1, how to set up a Punnett square, accompanied by a tutorial
  13. Monohybrid Cross and Dihybrid Cross Representations - diagrams of both from Encyclopaedia Britannica
  14. Monohybrid Cross Problem Set - The following problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem.
  15. Predicting the Results of Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses - [14 pages] slide show about crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  16. Solving a Genetic Mystery - a list of phenotypes easily identified in humans that follow the pattern of Mendelian inheritance
  17. What are Dominant and Recessive? - from the Genetic Science Learning Center
Level 2
Recognize the two major functions of DNA - replication and protein synthesis
  1. An index of protein synthesis animations - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Discovery of DNA Structure and Function: Watson and Crick - The landmark ideas of Watson and Crick relied heavily on the work of other scientists.
  3. DNA and Protein Synthesis in the Cell - [lesson plan] Students learn about DNA replication, protein synthesis, molecular genetics and proteins in the human body. The multimedia resources section of this lesson contains links to six high quality resources. A lesson plan can be found at this site
  4. DNA Flashcards - [193 terms] flash cards are available in several formats
  5. DNA from the Beginning - This site is organized around key concepts. The science behind each concept is explained by: animation, image gallery, video interviews, problem, biographies, and links. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  6. DNA Replicating Itself - from the Graphics Gallery
  7. DNA Replication - Flash animation in eight sections A video is available through this link
  8. DNA Replication - a Wikipedia entry
  9. DNA Replication - the short story - using a zipper as an example
  10. DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [45 slides] several slides contain practice questions to check for student understanding
  11. DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis - [20 terms] flashcards, various formats
  12. DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - [5:25] a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  13. DNA: Structure and Function - notes from a Biology 104 course at UC Clermont
  14. DNA: The Genetic Material - animation followed by five multiple-choice questions A video is available through this link This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  15. DNA Workshop - The activity in this section places you within the cell, involving you with the processes of DNA replication and protein synthesis. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  16. DNA Replication - a good animation
  17. Explore DNA - index of resources available from Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  18. Nucleic Acids - detailed description of DNA and its function
  19. Overview of DNA Functions - The functions of DNA are vital for inheritance, coding for proteins and the genetic blueprint of life.
  20. Ribosomes, Transcription, and Translation - how DNA is passed on in dividing cells
  21. RNA and Protein Synthesis - from BBC education
  22. The Structure and Function of DNA - from Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.
  23. Transcription, Translation and Replication - detailed description of the processes
Identify the sex chromosomes in humans and recognize inheritance patterns that are sex-linked
  1. Are Your Genetic Traits Dominant Or Recessive? -  Find out what some of your common traits are by taking this quiz
  2. Chromosomes: Definition & Structure - how sex is determined
  3. Dominant and Recessive Characteristics - Characteristics in the left-hand column dominate over those characteristics listed in the right-hand column.
  4. Dominant and Recessive Traits - a worksheet
  5. Dominant vs. Recessive - explains how you know what traits are dominant or recessive
  6. Gender and Genetics - genetic components of sex and gender
  7. How Chromosomes Determine Sex - Chromosomes are long, stringy aggregates of genes that carry heredity information.
  8. Inheritance patterns of mongenic disorders - Monogenic genetic disorders occur as a direct consequence of a single gene being defective
  9. Sex Chromosome - written by the Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
  10. Sex Chromosomes - The nuclei of human cells contain 22 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. In females, the sex chromosomes are the 2 X chromosomes. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
  11. Sex-Linked Inheritance Problem Set - The following problems have multiple choice answers. Correct answers are reinforced with a brief explanation. Incorrect answers are linked to tutorials to help solve the problem.
  12. Sexual Differentiation in Humans - a Wikipedia entry
  13. Solving a Genetic Mystery - a list of phenotypes easily identified in humans that follow the pattern of Mendelian inheritance
  14. What are Dominant and Recessive? - from the Genetic Science Learning Center
  15. XY Sex Determination System - a Wikipedia entry
  16. Your Genes, Your Health - a multimedia guide to genetic disorders
Analyze modes of inheritance including co-dominance, incomplete dominance, polygenic, and multiple alleles
  1. Analogy for a Polygenic Trait with a Single Locus of Large Effect - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. The Complex Expression Patterns of Multiple Alleles - Many alleles do not behave in such a simple Mendelian manner. This tutorial will explore more complex patterns of expression.
  3. Five Concepts That Go Beyond Gregor Mendel's Principles - [11:30] a You Tube video
  4. Incomplete dominance - an interactive problem set [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  5. Incomplete Dominance and Codominance - not all traits are controlled by single genes with simple dominant
  6. Incomplete Dominance, Codominance, and Polygenic Genetics - [5:40] a You Tube video
  7. Incomplete, Codominance and Polygenic Inheritance - [10 page document] patterns of inheritance are more complicated than Mendel proposed An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  8. Non-Mendelian Genetics - [24 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard
  9. Patterns of Inheritance - [28 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard Mendelian genetics and its extensions
  10. Principal features of the five basic Mendelian inheritance patterns - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
Describe and analyze DNA fingerprinting using an illustration of DNA bands
  1. Create a DNA Fingerprint - from NOVA OnLine This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  2. Create a DNA Fingerprint - [PBS Learning Media] This interactive feature guides you through the process of creating DNA profiles of several criminal suspects and tissue evidence left at the crime scene. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  3. DNA's Detective Story - The analysis of genetic material, to create DNA fingerprints and profiles, has revolutionized forensic science.
  4. DNA Fingerprinting - [6:09] how variability in STRs can be used to identify individuals - a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  5. DNA Fingerprinting - a Flash animation from McGraw Hill Higher Education A video is available through this link
  6. DNA Fingerprinting - written by the Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. DNA Fingerprinting - from Web MD
  8. DNA Fingerprinting is Everywhere - from Understanding Genetics, Stanford University
  9. DNA Fingerprinting in Human Health and Society - Unlike a conventional fingerprint that occurs only on the fingertips and can be altered by surgery, a DNA fingerprint is the same for every cell, tissue, and organ of a person.
  10. DNA Profiling - a Wikipedia entry
  11. Explore Forensics: DNA Fingerprinting - the scientific process whereby samples of DNA are collected, collated and used to match other samples of DNA, which may have been found at the scene of a crime
  12. Forensics, DNA Fingerprinting, and Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) - Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology.
  13. Forget Fingerprints: Law Enforcement DNA Databases Poised To Expand - an in-depth article from NOVA Next
  14. Eureka Moment That Led to the Discovery of DNS Fingerprinting - Twenty-five years ago academic Alec Jeffreys stumbled on a remarkable discovery. The scientific breakthrough led to DNA fingerprinting - which has since trapped hundreds of killers, freed the innocent and revolutionized science and criminal justice
  15. Genetic Fingerprinting Explained - concise explanation
  16. Genetic Origins - The study of human evolution begins with your DNA. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  17. How DNA Evidence Works
Model the processes of replication, transcription, and translation
  1. DNA Replication - DNA makes DNA
  2. DNA Replicating Itself - from the Graphics Gallery
  3. DNA Replication - Flash animation in eight sections A video is available through this link
  4. DNA Replication - a Wikipedia entry
  5. DNA Replication - the short story - using a zipper as an example
  6. DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [45 slides] several slides contain practice questions to check for student understanding
  7. DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis - [20 terms] flashcards, various formats
  8. DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis - [5:25] a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  9. Gene Expression: Transcription
  10. Gene Translation: RNA -> Protein
  11. Java applets illustrating gene dropping - There are two applets, each contain the same ten pedigrees. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  12. Molecular Biology - from the Lab Bench at Prentice Hall - several chapters, each with excellent animations, plus a quiz. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  13. Ribosomes, Transcription, and Translation - how DNA is passed on in dividing cells
Construct a dihybrid cross and predict genotypic and phenotypic ratios
  1. Dihybrid Cross Problem Set
  2. Dihybrid Cross Problem 2 - When does a phenotype ratio of 9:3:3:1 occur?
  3. Dihybrid Cross - Problem 3: A genetic cross yielding a 9:3:3:1 ratio of offspring
  4. Dihybrid Cross - a Bitesize tutorial from BBC Education
  5. Dihybrid Crosses - a Flash animation
  6. Dihybrid Crosses: Crosses That Involve 2 Traits - These type of crosses can be challenging to set up, and the square you create will be 4x4
  7. Dihybrid Punnett Square - [5:54] a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  8. DNA From the Beginning - genetic inheritance follows rules
  9. Genetics Practice Problems - includes monohybrid cross, testcross, incomplete dominance, dihybrid cross, multiple alleles and codominance, trihybrid cross, sex-linked genes, sex-influenced traits, epistasis This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  10. Heredity and Genetics - [13 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard this PowerPoint show does a good job of teaching about dihybrid crosses
  11. Interactive dihybrid cross - two characteristics (seed color and seed texture) are considered. [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  12. Monohybrid Cross and Dihybrid Cross Representations - diagrams of both from Encyclopaedia Britannica
  13. Predicting the Results of Monohybrid and Dihybrid Crosses - [14 pages] slide show about crosses in the form of a .pdf document An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  14. Punnett Square Calculator - Since all allele combinations are equally likely to occur, a Punnett Square predicts the probability of a cross producing each genotype.
  15. Punnett Square examples - for Monohybrid and Dihybrid crosses This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  16. Solving Genetics Problems II: Dihybrid Crosses - The logic of a problem involving two genes is exactly the same as for one involving only one gene.
Level 3
Manipulate a model of DNA to show different types of mutation
  1. Bad Luck of Random Mutations Plays Predominant Role in Cancer, Study Shows - from Johns Hopkins
  2. Different Types of Mutations - [5:52] a Khan Academy video A video is available through this link
  3. DNA Is Constantly Changing Through the Process of Mutation - from Scitable by Nature Education
  4. Genes and Mutations - types of mutations
  5. How DNA Changes Affect Phenotype - from An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. 7th edition
  6. Mutation - a Wikipedia entry
  7. Mutations - a Bitesize tutorial from BBC Education
  8. Mutations and Health - Gene mutations, chromosomal changes, and conditions that run in families
  9. Mutations: Types and Causes - from a Molecular Cell Biology textbook
  10. Types of Mutation - There are many different ways that DNA can be changed, resulting in different types of mutation. This site gives a quick summary of a few of these.
Analyze/construct a karyotype and identify abnormalities for chromosome number, deletions, and translocations
  1. Cut 'n Paste Karytoping Activity - a page to print and cut out for students to match chromosomes on a karyotype, page 2 is an answer key An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  2. The extra copy of chromosome 21 in this karyotype identifies this individual as having Down's syndrome - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  3. How Can Karyotype Analysis Explain Genetic Disorders - [lesson plan] A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded Construct a karyotype from the metaphase chromosomes of a fictitious organism - printables are associated with the 8-page lesson plan This link includes something for the teacher to print
  4. How Can Karyotype Analysis Explain Genetic Disorders - this lab activity uses bug chromosomes for the karyotype
  5. Karyotype - aWikipedia entry
  6. Karyotype Puzzle - [lesson plan] includes links to a page of printables to cut out, and one to use as an overhead transparency
  7. Varityping - Examining chromosomes through karyotyping allows a physician to determine whether there are any abnormalities or structural problems
  8. Karyotyping Activity This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  9. Karyotyping for Chromosomal Abnormalities - Each chromosome pair viewed in a karyotype appears to have its own distinct "bar code" of bands. What changes do scientists look for in a karyotype when diagnosing diseases and disorders?
  10. Lab Activity: Making Karyotype - students draw a data table in which to record observations of the karyotypes shown in Figures 1, 3,4, and 5
  11. Make a Karyotype - click on a chromosome in the pool and drag it to its match in the karyotype This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  12. Preparing a Karyotype - Metaphase cells are required to prepare a standard karyotype, and virtually any population of dividing cells could be used. Blood is easily the most frequently sampled tissue
  13. The Use of Karyotypes to Investigate Genetic Disorders - lesson plan with pages to print for a class activity
  14. Using Karyotypes To Diagnose Genetic Disorders - a look at the normal process followed by a look at what can go wrong
  15. What Can Our Chromosomes Tell Us? - a look at a karyotype [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]

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Standard 5 Diversity
The student will investigate the diversity of organisms by analyzing systems of classification, exploring diverse environments, and comparing life cycles.
Level 1
Infer animals or plants indigenous to an environment, given pictures or diagrams of the organisms and a description of the environment
  1. Introduction to Biomes - provides a listing of the food web in each biome [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Native Animals - organisms in Australia
Infer the biome in which an animal or plant lives, given a description of the organism and pictures of various biomes
  1. Biome Summary
  2. Biomes - [15 terms] flash cards in a variety of formats
  3. Biomes - [27 page unit plan] this document includes many colorful illustrations and questions for review at various places in the unit plan An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  4. Biomes - climate and biodiversity: why and how biomes differ
  5. Biomes Activity - [3 page lesson plan] design an animal that is best suited to its environment An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  6. Biomes and Ecosystems - [72 page Google book] includes activities and questions A lesson plan can be found at this site
  7. Biomes of the World from the Missouri Botanical Garden
  8. Climate and Biomes - Biomes are regions of Earth that have similar climates and other abiotic (non-living) factors such as elevation, humidity, and soil type.
  9. Communities and Biomes - [26 page document] Unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  10. Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems - [32 page document] this unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  11. Earth Science: Activity Lab Book - [278 pages] two Ecology chapters, everyday science activities, and learning labs
  12. Factors that Influence Ecosystems - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [76 page document] Lesson Objectives: Hypothesize how precipitation and altitude affect the types of vegetation in an ecosystem. Graph and analyze ecosystem data to confirm or refute your hypotheses.
  13. Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes - [17 page document] An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  14. Habitats/Biomes from Enchanted Learning - provides a good summary of biome characteristics
  15. Interactions of Living Things - [28 page document] this unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  16. Mission: Biomes - This site was designed for teachers to use in classrooms as a supplementary, interdisciplinary unit A lesson plan can be found at this site
  17. Plant Adaptations - [5 page document] An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  18. World Biome Dossier - Each biome contains ecosystems with organisms adapted to that particular environment
  19. The World's Biomes : Freshwater , Marine , Deserts , Forests , Grasslands , Tundra
Infer the relatedness of different organisms using the Linnean system of classification, given pictures of a variety of different plants or animals and a key to classification of organisms
  1. Carl von Linne and the Linnean System of Nomenclature - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Classification - [45 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard addresses the question, why is it important to place living things into categories
  3. Classification of Living Organisms - [37 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard short overview
  4. An Introduction to the Principles of Taxonomy
  5. Systematics - [44 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard Systematics seeks to classify organisms according to evolutionary relationships
  6. Taxonomy - [70 slides] A PowerPoint show related to this standard good overview
  7. Test Prep - seventy-three multiple-choice questions to use as test prep review. answers are given below each question This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
Develop a rationale for a system of classification, given a group of objects to classify
  1. Animal and Plant Classification - This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  2. Biology Exam Questions - [331 terms] flash cards in a variety of formats
  3. Classification of Plants & Animals from the Franklin Institute Online
  4. Classifying Critters - a series of classification challenges This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  5. Classifying Critters - a short page of information with fifteen links to other sites with lots of information about "critters" [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  6. Is it "So Long, Linnaeus"? - In high-stakes name game, phylogenetic nomenclature puts its chips on the table.
Predict the types of plants and animals indigenous to a biome by determining the characteristics of the biome
  1. Biome Summary - characteristics of six biomes
  2. Biomes - climate and biodiversity: why and how biomes differ
  3. Biomes - [15 terms] flash cards in a variety of formats
  4. Biomes - [27 page unit plan] this document includes many colorful illustrations and questions for review at various places in the unit plan An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  5. Biomes Activity - [3 page lesson plan] design an animal that is best suited to its environment An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  6. Biomes and Ecosystems - [72 page Google book] includes activities and questions A lesson plan can be found at this site
  7. Biomes of the World from the Missouri Botanical Garden
  8. Climate and Biomes - Biomes are regions of Earth that have similar climates and other abiotic (non-living) factors such as elevation, humidity, and soil type.
  9. Communities and Biomes - [26 page document] Unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  10. Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems - [32 page document] this unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  11. Factors that Influence Ecosystems - A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded [76 page document] Lesson Objectives: Hypothesize how precipitation and altitude affect the types of vegetation in an ecosystem. Graph and analyze ecosystem data to confirm or refute your hypotheses.
  12. Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes - [17 page document] An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  13. Habitats/Biomes from Enchanted Learning - provides a good summary of biome characteristics
  14. Interactions of Living Things - [28 page document] this unit plan includes activities and questions to check for understanding An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  15. Mission: Biomes - This site was designed for teachers to use in classrooms as a supplementary, interdisciplinary unit A lesson plan can be found at this site
  16. World Biome Dossier - Each biome contains ecosystems with organisms adapted to that particular environment
  17. The World's Biomes : Freshwater , Marine , Deserts , Forests , Grasslands , Tundra
Level 2
Determine the genus and species of an organism, given a dichotomous key containing descriptions of the characteristic of each classification level
  1. Biologists Use Seven Levels of Classification - This lower level presentation includes some excellent examples and illustrations An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  2. Classification of Living Organisms - this nineteen-page lesson plan includes two activities for students to practice using a dichotomous key A lesson plan can be found at this site An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  3. Classification of Living Things - [34 pages] this unit plan is designed for sixth grade burt provides many good images and activities
  4. Evolution and Biodiversity Laboratory - systematics and taxonomy lesson plan An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  5. Dichotomous Key - learning how to use a dichotomous key to identify plants or animals
  6. Key to macro invertebrate life in a pond. After you see the key, go to the Aquatic Critter Key and try your skill. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  7. Make a Dichotomous Key - Classroom Activity at Enchanted Learning A lesson plan can be found at this site
  8. Taxonomic Classification and Phylogenic Trees - includes an example of cladogram construction for vertebrates
  9. Taxonomy: Kingdoms, Domains & Dichotomous Keys - this lesson plan includes links to several documents to print and use with the lesson An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  10. Taxonomy: The Science of Classifying - this lesson plan includes a simple activity to give students experience with using a dichotomous key A lesson plan can be found at this site
  11. Taxonomy: Who is in My Family? - (Teacher Version) - lesson plan designed to help students understand how a dichotomous key can be used to identify and classify a given set of organisms An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  12. Using Dichotomous Keys for Sea Creatures - [12 page document] A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded A lesson plan can be found at this site lesson plan including pictures of marine life to classify
  13. What Tree is it? - a dichotomous key to use for tree identification This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
Determine whether an insect undergoes complete or incomplete metamorphosis, given pictures or diagrams of the insect in its stages of development
  1. Before and After - eleven pairs of insects with before and after pictures
  2. Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [32 slides] many good images in this slide show
  3. Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis - [23 terms] flash cards in a variety of formats
  4. Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis: Lets Look at the Difference - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [26 slides] this slide show includes nine questions for students to answer
  5. Complete vs. Incomplete Metamorphosis - [2:40] a short You Tube video
  6. Incomplete and Complete Metamorphosis - a Flash video presentation from Harcourt School Publishers A video is available through this link
  7. Insect Metamorphosis - after learning about metamorphosis students visit selected web sites to determine whether each insect undergoes complete or incomplete metamorphosis [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  8. Insect Growth and Metamorphosis - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  9. Metamorphosis - explanation and a diagram followed by a list of insects for students to decide which type of metamorphosis is involved
  10. Metamorphosis - the four stages of complete metamorphosis
  11. Metamorphosis: Gradual Growth vs. Growth in Stages - simple explanation with clear illustrations, a good overview
  12. Metamorphosis of Various Insects - This chart illustrates examples of the four types of metamorphosis and lists the orders of insects that are included in each metamorphosis type. Complete the exercise that follows the chart.
  13. Metamorphosis Life Cycles - six life cycles (four complete and two incomplete) each life cycle is on a separate page An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This link includes something for the teacher to print
  14. Metamorphosis: Nature's Ultimate Transformer - three stages of incomplete metamorphosis from Ask a Biologist at ASU
Infer the body symmetry of an organism, given a diagram or picture of the organism
  1. Animal Body Plans and Movement: Symmetry in Action - brief description
  2. Bilateral Symmetry - short explanation from the Natural History Museum, London
  3. Finding Lines of Symmetry - from a Geometry lesson
  4. Symmetry in Biology - a Wikipedia entry includes an interesting illustration showing the range of possible symmetries
  5. Symmetry and Segmentation - Sponges, the most primitive group of animals, are asymmetrical. However, all other animals show one of two types of symmetry: radial or bilateral.
Model body plans with asymmetry, radial, and bilateral symmetry
  1. Mirror Symmetry - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  2. Forward Motion: Bilateral Symmetry - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  3. Spherical Symmetry - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
Classify a group of organisms given a dichotomous key with characteristics of the organisms
  1. Dichotomous Key - learning how to use a dichotomous key to identify plants or animals
  2. Key to macro invertebrate life in a pond. After you see the key, go to the Aquatic Critter Key and try your skill. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  3. Make a Dichotomous Key - Classroom Activity at Enchanted Learning A lesson plan can be found at this site
  4. Taxonomic Classification and Phylogenic Trees - includes an example of cladogram construction for vertebrates
  5. Taxonomy: Kingdoms, Domains & Dichotomous Keys - this lesson plan includes links to several documents to print and use with the lesson An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  6. Taxonomy: The Science of Classifying - this lesson plan includes a simple activity to give students experience with using a dichotomous key A lesson plan can be found at this site
  7. Taxonomy: Who is in My Family? - (Teacher Version) - lesson plan designed to help students understand how a dichotomous key can be used to identify and classify a given set of organisms An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  8. Using Dichotomous Keys for Sea Creatures - [12 page document] A Microsoft Word document to be downloaded A lesson plan can be found at this site lesson plan including pictures of marine life to classify
  9. What Tree is it? - a dichotomous key to use for tree identification This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
Level 3
Compare and contrast life cycles of various organisms to include alternation of generations
  1. Alternation of Generations
  2. Brine Shrimp Life Cycle - from Genetic Science Learning Center
  3. Butterfly Life Cycle - from Cocoon.org
  4. Life Cycle of a Frog - a Flash video from Harcourt School Publishers
  5. Life Cycle of Butterflies and Moths - from the children's butterfly site
  6. The Life Cycle of Plants - a set of activities regarding the life cycle of plants A lesson plan can be found at this site
  7. The Secret Lives of Flowers - click on a flower to see an animation of the life cycle of a flower

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Standard 6 Biological Evolution
The student will investigate the forces of natural selection on the development of organisms and examine the evidence for biological evolution.
Level 1
A library of topics related to evolution is hosted by WGBH, a PBS station
Differentiate between the relative age of various fossils in sedimentary rock, given a diagram of rock strata
  1. Earth History Unit Test - [17 pages] fifty questions on seventeen pages, followed by a teacher's key An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding This link includes something for the teacher to print
  2. The Fossil Record - a lesson plan from Discovery.com [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] A lesson plan can be found at this site
  3. Geologic Time - The goal of this lecture is come to come to a scientific understanding of geologic time and the age of the Earth.
  4. Geologic Time - from USGS
  5. Geologic Time - [26 pages] includes a discussion of relative age dating of rocks, and also absolute age dating An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
  6. Relative Age - determining relative age from the rock record
  7. Relative Age Determination - using superposition, faunal succession, crosscutting relations, and inclusions
  8. Relative Ages of Rocks - high school Earth Science presentation
  9. Rocks Provide a Timeline for Earth - students will learn what the relative ages of rock layers reveal about earth, how index fossils are used to determine the ages of rock layers, and how the absolute ages of rocks are determined An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
  10. What’s Up? - [10 page document] This exercise will introduce your students to the concept of relative age dating, and allow them to practice their new skills by determining the age sequence of geologic events in a cross section. An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
Predict how environmental changes will encourage or discourage the formation of a new species or extinction of an existing species
  1. Biological consequences of global warming - article An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  2. Causes of Extinction - from the Encyclopedia of Earth
  3. Climate Change and Biomes - activities for conceptualizing climate and climate change An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  4. Climate Change Information Kit - Article by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which engages hundreds of the world's leading experts in reviewing the most up-to-date, peer-reviewed literature on the scientific and technical aspects of climate change
  5. Endangered Species - a National Geographic encyclopedic entry
  6. Extinction - a Wikipedia article outlining causes of extinction
  7. Extinction or Opportunity - mass extinctions offered surviving species an opportunity
  8. Five Worst Mass Extinctions - posted by an endangered species organization
  9. Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences - habitat loss is generally viewed as the largest single cause of biodiversity loss worldwide
  10. The Heat is On - [16 page document] How global temperature change may impact South African plants An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  11. Old and New Species: Extinction - some factors that can cause a species to become extinct
  12. The Origin of Species - [20 page document] many good illustrations accompany this advanced level report An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  13. Species, Speciation and the Environment - the environment plays a major role in the evolution of species
  14. Teach Evolution and Make it Relevant - lessons on the pathways of evolution A lesson plan can be found at this site
  15. Ten Most Endangered Species in the World - tiger is at the top of their list
Compare and contrast the processes of fossil formation
  1. The Formation of Fossils - each picture in this explanation has a link which opens more information about that kind of fossil
  2. Fossil Formation: The Work of Ages - two page article on the process
  3. Fossilization - Only the right circumstances can preserve an organism into a fossil.
  4. Fossils - a BBC Prehistoric Life display with several videos embedded A video is available through this link
  5. Fossils: Window to the Past - below the explanation you will find links to twelve categories of fossil types
  6. How are fossils formed? - For a plant or animal to become a fossil, a series of events must occur (from dinosaur to fossil)
  7. How are Fossils Formed? - an explanation of six primary ways fossils are formed
  8. How Fossils are Formed - [2:38] a You Tube video A video is available through this link
  9. How Fossils Form - from EnchantedLearning.com
  10. How Fossils Formed - lists best conditions for fossilization
  11. Ways in which a fossil may be formed - several good images are included [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  12. What is a Fossil? - includes a series of images to illustrate fossil formation
Level 2
Compare homologous structures in species to determine the relatedness of certain species
  1. Comparing Homologous Structures - use this lesson to help students observe how similar body structures in various organisms may indicate that they share a common ancestor. An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
  2. Evolution - evidence from living organisms
  3. Fingerprinting: a Lesson on Classification - comparing characteristics to develop a system of classification [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] A lesson plan can be found at this site
  4. Homologous Structures in Animals - some examples of homologous structures
  5. Human, Bird, and Bat Bone Comparison - from Ask a Biologist at ASU
  6. Investigating Homologous Structures - A PowerPoint show related to this standard [15 slides] this slide show includes assignments for your students
  7. The "Nuts and Bolts" of Taxonomy and Classification - This exercise illustrates the creativity involved in taxonomy and the roles form and function, ancestral traits and derived characters play in generating classification schemes. A lesson plan can be found at this site
Differentiate between natural selection and selective breeding
  1. Make it a Habitat - consider the adaptation of life forms through natural selection [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] A lesson plan can be found at this site
  2. Selective Breeding - natural selection occurs in nature, but selective breeding only occurs when humans intervene
  3. Selective Breeding - a Wikipedia entry
  4. What Is the Difference Between Natural Selection and Selective Breeding? - from eHow
Calculate the approximate age of a fossil, given the amount of Carbon 14 atoms found in the fossil and the half-life of C-14
  1. C 14 Quiz - Press the continue button to generate true or false statements about C 14 then answer a series of questions. This site includes questions for your students to check their understanding
  2. Carbon-14 Dating - math beyond school
  3. Carbon-14 Dating - After burning a small piece of an artifact, scientists compare the amount of Carbon-14 to the amount of Carbon-12 to determine the age of the object
  4. Carbon 14 Dating Calculator - Find the years that have elapsed from how much Carbon 14 remains or find the percent of Carbon 14 remaining after a given number of years. This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  5. Carbon-14, Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils - Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50,000 years old
  6. Carbon-14 Dating: or How Old Are Those M & M"s - student activity involving 100 M & M's An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
  7. Carbon Dating - hyperlinks in this explanation lead to other pages related to carbon dating
  8. Carbon Dating - the use of carbon dating to determine the age of fossil remains
  9. Geologic Time - [26 pages] includes a discussion of relative age dating of rocks, and also absolute age dating An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site This link includes something for the teacher to print
  10. Half-Life Problems Involving Carbon-14 - nine sample problems
  11. How to Determine the Age of a Fossil Using Carbon-14 - includes a short video to explain the process A video is available through this link
  12. Radiocarbon Dating - detailed explanation
  13. Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
  14. Showing Their Age - dating the fossils and artifacts that mark the great human migration
  15. Use the % C-14 in a table to assign dates to events - A lesson which makes use of the C14 calculator above [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  16. What Is Radioactive Dating and How Can it Tell Us the Age of an Object? - From New York State High School Regents Exam Prep
View embryos of different vertebrates to compare their early embryonic development to show relatedness
  1. Comparative Embryology - six developmental stages of five species of vertebrates
  2. The embryonic development of all vertebrates shows remarkable similarities
  3. Evidences of Evolution - includes a section on comparative anatomy An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format
  4. Haeckel and the Vertebrate Archetype - [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  5. Which embryo is human? - DNA and the Developing Embryo [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.] This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
Predict the role of mutations in the survival of a population
  1. Birds, Beaks, and Natural Selection - A Simulation An Adobe Acrobat document in .pdf format A lesson plan can be found at this site
  2. DNA Mutations - excellent illustrations and animations from Cancer Quest
  3. Evolutionary Genetics - for evolution of a species to occur the gene frequencies of that population must undergo change
  4. Genetic Variation and Natural Selection - Although mutation is the only source of new alleles, the potential for a new allele combination is increased with every sexual reproduction from three primary processes.
  5. Population Genetics - The field of population genetics examines the amount of genetic variation within populations and the processes that influence this variation
  6. What is Mutation - from the Genetic Science Learning Center
Level 3
Recognize the relatedness of species using DNA strands
  1. Destination: Galapagos Islands - Cyber Field Trip Student Activity - "DNA Adventure: The Web of Life" A lesson plan can be found at this site
  2. Evolution - evidence from living organisms
  3. Major Mass Extinctions Begin - Earth timeline
  4. Relatedness of Species - the origin of birds This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  5. Picturing Evolutionary Trees - common descent described graphically (includes several activities)
Develop a time line that depicts change of organisms through time
  1. Age of Fossils -
  2. A Chart of Geological Time: From a Trilobite's Point Of View - the chart depicts the geological periods during which trilobites existed
  3. Evolution of the Universe - The incredible story of you ! (three timelines are available - choose by clicking on the timeline index)
  4. Evolutionary and Geological Timelines
  5. Examining the Fossil Record - develop a model evolutionary tree based on the morphology and age of fossils
  6. Fossil Succession - from Fossils, Rocks and Time
  7. Geologic Time Scale - from Enchanted Learning
  8. Hominid species - the evolution timeline [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  9. Hominid Species Timeline - A chronological chart which shows the main Hominid species (apes in blue, human species in red) and their approximate relationships in time [This expired link is available through the Wayback Machine Internet Archive. If the page doesn't load quickly click on Impatient? at the bottom right of the page.]
  10. Human evolution timeline - move the slider forward and backward to move through time, or roll your cursor over a specimen to learn more about that species This site is interactive and allows students to play a game or input or collect data
  11. Human Evolution: The fossil evidence in 3D - UCSB online 3D gallery of modern primate relatives and fossil ancestors of humans. This gallery contains five modern primate crania, and five fossil crania. The crania can be rotated 360 degrees.
  12. Origins of Humankind - from WGBH, a PBS station in Boston
  13. A Pictorial History of Life on Earth
  14. Virtual Fossil Museum - The Virtual Fossil Museum is an educational resource providing an ever-growing extensive collection of fossil images
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Internet4classrooms is a collaborative effort by Susan Brooks and Bill Byles.
 

  

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