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## End-of-Course - Physical Science

### sites to help students practice skills needed for the Physical Science exam

Item Sampler from the State of Tennessee

 Standard 1 Force and Motion Level 1 distinguish between speed and velocity, given a scenario. Speed and Velocity - This Physics Classroom tutorial helps students distinguish between speed and velocity. An animation and two practice problems are included. Follow that lesson with the Acceleration tutorial. Two animations and two practice problems are included with the acceleration tutorial. A java applet which allows your students to collect data to make calculations regarding velocity and acceleration due to gravity. Further calculations can be made with a second version of this applet. Putt-putt golf applet which asks your students to experiment with velocity and acceleration.
 relate inertia, force, or action-reaction forces to Newton's three laws of motion given an illustration or diagram. An index of Newton's laws tutorials from the Physics Classroom (a total of 16 separate lessons) Mass, Force and Acceleration - Watch as you fill out the chart to see how mass, force, and acceleration are related. When you are done, see if you can write a rule. An index of Newton's Laws animations from the Physics Classroom Motion with Constant Acceleration - This Java applet shows a car moving with constant acceleration Newton's Laws - A quiz about Isaac Newton's three famous laws of motion. (a Quia quiz) Newton's Second Law Experiment - This Java applet simulates an air track glider setup, as it is used for experiments on constant acceleration motion. Forces and Motion - Matching | Concentration | Flash Cards | Word Search distinguish between mass and weight, given examples using SI units. Your Weight on Other Worlds - This Exploratorium site gets your students' attention by showing that their weight will vary with different gravitational attraction (you will not believe what you would weigh on a Neutron star!). Then, a very good presentation of the difference between weight and mass is given. weight and mass converter - After your students use this converter, perhaps you could discuss if it is appropriate to perform this type of conversion. Science Terms: Distinctions, Restrictions, and Confusions - Bartelby.com points out that an absolute conversion factor between these two units is not technically sound Mass vs. Weight - Two-thirds of the way down this page you will find a discussion of mass vs weight accompanied by practice questions identify simple machines, given illustrations. Simple Machines Activities: - explore the House to check understanding of this standard, then move to the Tool Shed to begin exploring compound machines ( E-Heads) Simple Machines - An excellent overview from the Franklin Institute On-Line Machines Make Life Easier - a set of activities about simple machines Lever - attach a new mass piece or put it to another place with pressed mouse button Move Our Principal - learn about the six simple machines then use their knowledge to assist their principal. Pulley - Investigate mechanical advantage of a pulley with this interactive java applet Pulley System - (raise or lower the load with the mouse) If you click on the mouse button, a spring balance will appear showing the tension in the string. Inclined Plane - This Java applet demonstrates a motion on an inclined plane with constant velocity and the corresponding forces. Simple Machines game from Harcourt School Simple Machines Made Simple - an introduction to the six simple machines Sunken Millions - a Simple Machines review game Rube Goldberg Machines - a simple machines PowerPoint show by Matt Aufman and Steve Case, University of Mississippi [23 slides] Level 2 interpret distance-time graphs for velocity or velocity-time graphs for acceleration. Kinematic Equations and Graphs (use of velocity-time graphs to describe the motion of objects) Six practice problems are provided, each requires the student to construct a velocity-time graph. Answers, including graphs, are provided. Graph Sketching and Recognition - Practice questions to test understanding of the graphical description of motion Ball and Ramp Simulation - see the results of a change in initial velocity, ramp height, displacement, even gravity calculate velocity, given distance and time; acceleration, given velocity and time; force, given mass and acceleration; work, given force and distance; or power, given work and time, using the provided formulas card. Describing Motion with Equations - There are three components of this tutorial from the Physics Classroom; The Kinematic Equations, Kinematic Equations & Problem-Solving, and Kinematic Equations & Free Fall. These are followed by Sample Problems & Solutions Using Equations as a "Recipe" for Algebraic Problem-Solving Using Equations as a Guide to Thinking distinguish among the three laws of motion, given a scenario. The Law of Action-Reaction (Revisited) An index of Newton's Laws animations from the Physics Classroom An index of Newton's laws tutorials from the Physics Classroom (a total of 16 separate lessons) Recognizing Forces - The purpose of this activity is to practice an understanding of the various types of forces choose the correct illustration that relates the effects of gravity on the motion of falling bodies, ocean tides or satellites. Describing Motion with Equations - There are three components of this tutorial from the Physics Classroom; The Kinematic Equations, Kinematic Equations & Problem-Solving, and Kinematic Equations & Free Fall. These are followed by Sample Problems & Solutions Projectile Motion - experiment with projectile motion by firing various objects out of a cannon Projectile Motion Simulator - change a number of variables, projectiles include piano, pumpkin, Buick and others Projectile Tutorial - You can do experimentation to discover concepts or you can check your problem-solving progress. Follow the directions below the picture depending on which one you want to do. Level 3 recognize the simple machines found in a compound machine, given an illustration. Simple Machines Activities - use the House as a review and then use the Tool Shed to check understanding of this standard choose the correct scenario that illustrates the law of conservation of momentum. Momentum - "mass in motion" Momentum and Impulse Connection - this tutorial includes a large number of practice questions to check understanding The Impulse-Momentum Change Theorem - Real-World Applications Momentum Conservation Principle Isolated Systems Conservation of Momentum in Different Inertial Frames - One dimensional Conservation of Momentum in Different Inertial Frames - Two dimensional

 Standard 4 Energy Level 1 classify waves as transverse waves or longitudinal waves, given an illustration. An index of wave tutorials from the Physics Classroom Electromagnetic Wave - This animation (java applet) shows an electromagnetic wave, namely a plane polarized wave, which propagates in positive x direction. Explore the relations between circular motion, simple harmonic motion and wave with this simple java applet. Waveform Demonstration - computer-based demonstration of these waveforms using a Java applet identify wavelength, frequency and amplitude, given an illustration. An index of Wave animations from the Physics Classroom Create standing waves with this excellent java applet. Change parameters or step the animation forward slowly while viewing the component waves to investigate interference. To isolate wave reflection, you might want to view the reflection of a single pulse. Electromagnetic Spectrum - In this applet, you can click on the wavelength/frequency scale and change the wavelength and frequency by dragging the mouse or by using the arrow keys on the keyboard. Holding the shift key down while pressing the left or right arrow keys changes the wavelength by a factor of 10. determine the temperature scale used, given the boiling and/or freezing point of water. Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion lesson Temperature - compares five temperatures on the three major scales Temperature Scales - compares Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales Three Big Temperature Scales - introduction to how temperature is measured Three Temperature Scales - two graphics compare several temperatures across scales Level 2 identify a wave interaction as reflection, diffraction, refraction, and interference, given an example. Beats - a java applet to investigate this sound phenomenon Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit - an applet to investigate diffraction Index of wave terms - good diagrams accompany each definition Standing Wave - Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave Standing Longitudinal Waves - This Java applet demonstrates the harmonics of the air in a tube as an example of standing longitudinal waves. Explore superposition of waves with a sine wave or a saw tooth wave Interference of two Circular or Spherical Waves - This Java applet shows the interference of two circular respectively spherical waves (e.g. of water or sound waves). select characteristic(s) that best describe(s) sound or light. determine whether the transfer of thermal energy is conduction, convection or radiation, given an illustration. Heat Transfer - an interactive graphical map Thermodynamic Equilibrium - an applet designed to simulate the diffusion process which occurs when gases of different temperatures are mixed (seven experiments can be performed with this applet) compare and contrast the four kinds of wave interactions (reflection, diffraction, refraction, and interference). Standing Wave - Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure - photos illustrating this classic case of wave interaction you might also want to see a short (10 second) clip of the failure. Resonance applet with instructions in the form of a dialog Experiments on Wave Interference Classic two slit interference change the slit separation to determine the interference pattern Explore standing waves created by waves moving in opposite direction (no reflection) with this java applet Create standing waves (with reflection at a boundary) with this excellent java applet. Change parameters or step the animation forward slowly while viewing the component waves to investigate interference. To isolate wave reflection, you might want to view the reflection of a single pulse. Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit - an applet to investigate diffraction Hearing Subtraction - (an activity on frequency and beats) This site allows students to hear beat frequency caused by two sounds. Interference of Light at a Double Slit - an applet to investigate interference Reflection and Refraction of Light Waves [Huygens' Principle] - This applet is a tutorial which explains the reflection and the refraction of waves by the principle of Huygens. Refraction of Light - The applet shows the reflected and the refracted ray and calculates the corresponding angles. Students can change the incident angle and the media. Standing Wave - Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave calculate voltage, given resistance and current in a series circuit, given the formulas. Combinations of Resistors, Inductors and Capacitors - java applet Electrical Resistance - Ohm's law from the Physics Classroom Ohm’s Law - This applet shows a simple circuit containing one resistor. In addition there is a voltmeter (parallel to the resistor) and an ammeter (in series with the resistor) The Ohm Zone - build any type of circuit you want Simple AC Circuits - This Java applet shows a simple circuit consisting of an alternating voltage source and, depending on the selected radio button, a resistor (without inductivity), a capacitor or an ideal coil (without resistance). Resistor Combinations - determine resistor combinations within the circuit where two or more resistors can be combined, and replace series and parallel resistor combinations with the correct equivalent resistors. Resistors in Series - electronics tutorial about resistors in series Resistors in Series - [3:20] video lesson distinguish between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, given a scenario. Compare Nuclear Fusion vs. Nuclear Fission - the emphasis here is on the production of energy The Difference Between Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion - two-page explanation Differences Between Fission and Fusion - explanation from the eHow site Nuclear Energy Transformed - four-page lesson plan which includes a quiz to take twice, once before reading and again during reading Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun - [designed for grades 9-12] four page lesson plan from Discovery Education select the statement that best describes the law of conservation of energy. Motion Madness - Vocabulary words dealing with motion and energy (four Quia quizzes) Matching | Concentration | Flash Cards | Word Search Roller Coaster WebQuest - the differences between potential and kinetic energy, and how different variables affect roller coaster design Level 3 calculate the amount of heat gained or lost by a substance, given the formula Thermodynamic Equilibrium - an applet designed to simulate the diffusion process which occurs when gases of different temperatures are mixed (seven experiments can be performed with this applet)

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 Online Quizzes Physical Science Methods Motion & Forces Acceleration & Momentum Energy Using Thermal Energy Machines: Making Work Easier Solids, Liquids & Gases Classification of Matter Atomic Structure/Periodic Table Chemical Bonds Properties of Elements Organic & Biological Compounds Useful Materials Solutions Chemical Reactions Acids, Bases, and Salts Light Mirrors and Lenses Electricity Magnetism Electronics Radioactivity Energy Sources
 Tests to Print Double Award Science: physics Foundation Double Award Science: physics Higher Single Award Physics Foundation Single Award Physics Higher
 Released Chemistry Tests - Virginia Standards of Learning 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005

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