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## Physics - Waves and Sound Standards

### Standard Number: 3.0 Waves and Sound: The student will investigate the properties of waves and sound.

#### Links verified 10/26/2012

Level 1 || Level 2 || Level 3
 At Level 1, the student is able to: 1. describe and investigate simple harmonic motion. An index of wave tutorials from the Physics Classroom Explore the relations between circular motion, simple harmonic motion and wave with this simple java applet. 2. investigate and analyze wavelength, frequency and amplitude of longitudinal and transverse waves. Longitudinal Waves - diagram accompanied by definitions Properties of Waves - the anatomy of a wave Transverse Waves - brief descriptions of several measurements Waves and Energy Transfer - explanation of several major points Waves and Vibrations - short description os how to calculate several of the variables in this standard
 3. identify a wave interaction as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference. Beat Frequencies - explanation with illustration, each linked term leads to other related concepts Beat Frequencies in Sound - A beat frequency or beat wave is a sound of fluctuating volume caused when you add two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. Beat Frequency - from a ThinkQuest student entry on sound Beat Frequency of Sound Waves - interactive page from Wolfram Demonstrations Project Beats - a java applet to investigate this sound phenomenon Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit - an applet to investigate diffraction Hearing Subtraction - an activity on beats and frequency Index of wave terms - good diagrams accompany each definition Sound: Beat Frequencies - includes some good examples Standing Wave - Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave At Level 2, the student is able to: 1. compare mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic Spectrum - In this applet, you can click on the wavelength/frequency scale and change the wavelength and frequency by dragging the mouse or by using the arrow keys on the keyboard. Holding the shift key down while pressing the left or right arrow keys changes the wavelength by a factor of 10. 2. explore Hooke’s Law. Hooke's Law - This java applet allows students to change variables and investigate Hooke's law. 3. investigate reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference of waves. Beat Frequencies in Sound - A beat frequency or beat wave is a sound of fluctuating volume caused when you add two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure - photos illustrating this classic case of wave interaction you might also want to see a short (10 second) clip of the failure . Resonance applet with instructions in the form of a dialog Experiments on Wave Interference Classic two slit interference change the slit separation to determine the interference pattern Diffraction of Light by a Single Slit - an applet to investigate diffraction Explore standing waves created by waves moving in opposite direction (no reflection) with this java applet Standing Longitudinal Waves - This Java applet demonstrates the harmonics of the air in a tube as an example of standing longitudinal waves. Standing Wave - Explanation by Superposition with the Reflected Wave Create standing waves (with reflection at a boundary) with this excellent java applet. Change parameters or step the animation forward slowly while viewing the component waves to investigate interference. To isolate wave reflection, you might want to view the reflection of a single pulse . Hearing Subtraction - (an activity on frequency and beats) This site allows students to hear beat frequency caused by two sounds. Interference of Light at a Double Slit - an applet to investigate interference Interference of two Circular or Spherical Waves - This Java applet shows the interference of two circular respectively spherical waves (e.g. of water or sound waves). Reflection and Refraction of Light Waves [Huygens' Principle] - This applet is a tutorial which explains the reflection and the refraction of waves by the principle of Huygens. Refraction of Light - The applet shows the reflected and the refracted ray and calculates the corresponding angles. Students can change the incident angle and the media. 4. demonstrate and explain the Doppler Effect. An amazing picture of a sonic boom from Astronomy Picture of the Day Behavior of Waves : The Doppler Effect Doppler applet which allows users to change wave speed, source speed, and wave length by clicking and dragging A nice Doppler applet from Fear of Physics Doppler Physlet - an applet (by another name) Doppler Effect Example - java applet Doppler Pulse Detection - explanation of a medical use of the effect The Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms Java applet - Click anywhere within the gray area and drag the mouse. An arrow representing the source velocity vector will appear. This police car applet might make an interesting introduction to the subject of the Doppler effect 5. experiment with reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference of waves and sound. An index of Wave animations from the Physics Classroom Beat Frequencies in Sound - A beat frequency or beat wave is a sound of fluctuating volume caused when you add two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. Explore superposition of waves with a sine wave or a saw tooth wave Create standing waves with this excellent java applet. Change parameters or step the animation forward slowly while viewing the component waves to investigate interference. To isolate wave reflection, you might want to view the reflection of a single pulse . Hearing Subtraction - an activity on beats and frequency 6. compare wave characteristics to natural auditory phenomena. Beat Frequencies in Sound - A beat frequency or beat wave is a sound of fluctuating volume caused when you add two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. Decibel Levels - This Cool Math page contains a list of decibel levels of everything from guitars to jet engines! Decibels - from Hyperphysics, includes an interactive decibel calculation section Hearing Subtraction - an activity on beats and frequency Typical average decibel levels (dB) of some common sounds - scroll to the bottom Understanding Sound Intensity - a good decibel scale is included What is a decibel? - an extensive discussion of this logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio What is a decibel, and what is the loudest sound I can listen to before it hurts my ears? - from How Stuff Works At Level 3, the student is able to: 1. determine the speed of sound experimentally using various materials and temperatures. How to Calculate the Velocity of Sound - step-by-step (although a bit short) instructions Speed of Sound - teacher's notes Wavelength and the Speed of Sound in Air - experimental determination of the dimensions and rate of travel of sound waves 2. measure spring constants. Application Experiment - Find the spring constant of a spring Finding the Spring Constant of a Spring Using Hooke's Law - report of an experiment to use as a lesson planning tool How to Calculate Spring Constant - step-by-step instructions Spring Constant - one way to measure spring constant, a video is included

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