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## Physics - Thermodynamics Standards

### Standard Number: 2.0 Thermodynamics: The student will examine the properties and laws of thermodynamics.

Level 1 || Level 2 || Level 3 ||
 At Level 1, the student is able to: 1. investigate temperature in relationship to kinetic energy. An excellent simulation by Noriyoshi Kato is called Billiards of Molecules (What's the difference in gas, liquid and solid) See Motion of Ideal Gas Molecules in a cylinder Kinetic Theory, Microscopic and Macroscopic Connections (a java applet) Equipartition Theorem (java applet) - The kinetic energy of a particle can be due to motion in the x, y, and z directions, as well as to rotations. The equiparition of energy theorem says that the kinetic energy of an atom or particle is, on average, equally distributed between the different modes (different degrees of freedom) available. Special Processes of an Ideal Gas - an applet to investigate ideal gases 2. apply the second law of thermodynamics to the Carnot engine. A java applet to show the physics processes of a Carnot heat engine
 2. recognize that absolute zero is the absence of molecular kinetic energy. Temperature and Absolute Zero - This tutorial includes a couple of good animations. What is the Lowest Temperature ever produced ? The limit of all temperature is absolute zero. For many years physicists have been closing in on absolute zero. No one will ever succeed in reaching it, but many have come very close. PhysLink presents - "What will happen to the gas at absolute zero temperature (0 K)?" At Level 2, the student is able to: 1. identify the characteristics of internal energy and temperature/heat (joules/calories). Introduction to Heat and Temperature This java applet shows Brownian motion for gas molecules. Qualitative evidence of the microscopic nature of gases is shown by an effect called Brownian motion. Temperature and Thermometers Thermometers as Speedometers 2. relate the First Law of Thermodynamics as an application of the Law of Conservation of Energy (hot to cold) and heat transfer through conduction, convection and radiation. Thermodynamic Equilibrium - an applet designed to simulate the diffusion process which occurs when gases of different temperatures are mixed (seven experiments can be performed with this applet) What is Heat? Methods of Heat Transfer Rates of Heat Transfer 3. relate change in heat content (quantity of thermal energy) to kinetic energy and specific heat (Q=mc?T). Maxwellian Velocity Distribution - an interactive applet designed to demonstrate the properties of the ideal gas law Ideal Gas Law - Using an interactive applet, you will control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber which is filled with an ideal gas. Three experiments are outlined. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure and Constant Volume - students use this java applet to collect data 4. investigate potential energy changes (phase changes) of heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, and heat of sublimation. At Level 3, the student is able to: 1. explore thermal expansion and contraction. Physics Lab: Linear Thermal Expansion - The purpose of this lab experiment is to measure the linear expansion coefficients of up to three different metals Thermal Expansion - explanation and illustration 2. apply the second law of thermodynamics to the Carnot engine. A java applet to show the physics processes of a Carnot heat engine

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