## Physics - Mechanics Standards

## Standard Number: 1.0 Mechanics:

The student will investigate the laws and properties of mechanics

## Links verified on 10/26/2012

Level 1 || Level 2 || Level 3 || Sample Task

At Level 1, the student is able to: 1. distinguish between mass and weight using base units in the standard international (SI) system.

- Your Weight on Other Worlds - This Exploratorium site gets your students' attention by showing that their weight will vary with different gravitational attraction (you will not believe what you would weigh on a Neutron star!). Then, a very good presentation of the difference between weight and mass is given.
- A weight and mass converter is provided by ConvertMe.com. After your students use this converter, perhaps you could discuss if it is appropriate to perform this type of conversion.
- Mass vs Weight - discussion of the difference and interactive questions to check for understanding

2. relate time in the (SI) system to the independent experimental variable in most situations.

- Ticker Tape Diagrams - A common way of analyzing the motion of objects in physics labs is to perform a ticker tape analysis. The practice problems included will help your students evaluate the time variable.
- Passing Lane - describing motion with diagrams
- Use this reaction time applet to gather data for graphing
- Java applet which students would use to collect data to sketch velocity as a function of time.
- Java applet displaying three position vs time graphs and three velocity vs time graphs . Your students must determine which of the graphs are correct.
3. relate inertia, force or action-reaction forces to Newton�s three laws of motion and distinguish between the three laws in various scenarios.

- An index of Newton's laws tutorials from the Physics Classroom (a total of 15 separate lessons)
- Design and Test - This project simulates the Design and Test process through the development of a virtual paintball catapult. The student must build catapults capable of performing a variety of tasks, stay within the allotted budget, and interpret test results to fine tune their design.
- Newton's Second Law Experiment - This Java applet simulates an air track glider setup, as it is used for experiments on constant acceleration motion.
- Motion with Constant Acceleration - This Java applet shows a car moving with constant acceleration
- Mass, Force and Acceleration - Watch as you fill out the chart to see how mass, force, and acceleration are related. When you are done, see if you can write a rule.
- Lunar Lander Simulator - experiment with changing force direction or magnitude
- Lunar Lander Simulator - this simulator is from PhET
4. compare and contrast characteristic properties of scalar and vector quantities.

- Vector Addition - Vector addition with moveable vectors and with spread sheet computations [excel workbook to download]
- Vectors: Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions - an index of lessons on vectors, projectile motion, and forces in two dimensions
- Vector Direction - practice with the use of scaled vector diagrams for the representation of the magnitude and direction of a vector.
- Resultant Vector - explore the effects of combining different vector quantities
- Resultant of Forces - This applet deals with forces exerted on a body.You can vary the number of single forces by using the choice box at the ride side. It is possible to change the sizes and directions of these forces by dragging the arrowheads to the intended positions with pressed mouse button.
- Resolution of a Force into Components - java applet
5. investigate the definitions of force, work, power, kinetic energy, and potential energy.

- An index of work, power, and energy tutorials
- Definition and Mathematics of Work
- Design a Roller Coaster - Try your hand at designing your own roller coaster. You will be building a conceptual coaster using the physics concepts that are used to design real coasters. You won't need to compute any formulas.
- Calculating the Amount of Work Done by Forces - quite a few practice scenarios are included
- Potential Energy - excellent diagrams and practice questions
- Kinetic Energy - more good diagrams and practice problems
- Mechanical Energy - no practice problems, but excellent illustrations
- Power - six practice problems accompany this tutorial
6. explore velocity and acceleration.

- Speed and Velocity - This Physics Classroom tutorial helps students distinguish between speed and velocity. An animation and two practice problems are included. Follow that lesson with the Acceleration tutorial. Two animations and two practice problems are included with the acceleration tutorial.
- A java applet which allows your students to collect data to make calculations regarding velocity and acceleration due to gravity. Further calculations can be made with a second version of this applet .
- Putt-putt golf applet which asks your students to experiment with velocity and acceleration.
1. analyze vector diagrams (addition, subtraction and scaling) and solve composition and resolution problems for force and momentum.

- Vectors - Fundamentals and Operations: Vector Addition - first steps in adding vectors and drawing resultant, with practice problems and an animation
- Vector Addition - Vector addition with moveable vectors and with spread sheet computations [excel workbook to download]
- Finding Vector Resultants
- Identifying Vector Components
- Vector Resolution - using the the parallelogram method and the trigonometric method
- Relative Velocity and Riverboat Problems - this tutorial includes several practice problems
- Vector Addition - This java applet shows how to add two vector A and B into vector C (A 3-D version is available at the bottom of the page)
- Resultant Vector - explore the effects of combining different vector quantities
2. explore characteristics of rectilinear motion and analyze distance-time graphs (velocity), velocity-time graphs (acceleration and distance).

- Describing Motion with Velocity vs Time Graphs - first of five lessons from The Physics Classroom
- Kinematics Equations and Graphs (use of velocity-time graphs to describe the motion of objects) Six practice problems are provided, each requires the student to construct a velocity-time graph. Answers, including graphs, are provided.
- Moving Man Simulation - Learn about position, velocity, and acceleration graphs. Move the little man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion. Set the position, velocity, or acceleration and let the simulation move the man for you.
3. investigate the characteristics of centripetal motion and centripetal acceleration.

- Motion Characteristics for Circular Motion - a set of five lessons
- Applications of Circular Motion - a set of three lessons
- Universal Gravitation - a set of five lessons
- Planetary and Satellite Motion - a set of five lessons
- An index of rotational motion animations from the Physics Classroom
- Amusement Park Physics - students learn the physics then design a roller coaster
- Funderstanding Roller Coaster ! - Your mission is to design a coaster so that you can achieve maximum thrills and chills without crashing or flying off the track. You must decide on a number of factors; the height of hill #1, hill #2, the size of the loop, the initial speed of the coaster, its mass, the gravity at work and the amount of friction on the track
- Model of a Carousel (Centripetal Force) - The simulation assumes a circular motion with constant angular velocity.
- Circular Motion and Centripetal Force - an interactive java applet
4. evaluate the dynamics of systems in motion including friction, gravity, impulse and momentum, change in momentum, and conservation of momentum.

- Momentum - "mass in motion"
- Momentum and Impulse Connection - this tutorial includes a large number of practice questions to check understanding
- The Impulse-Momentum Change Theorem - Real-World Applications
- The Law of Action-Reaction (Revisited)
- Momentum Conservation Principle
- Isolated Systems
- Using Equations as a "Recipe" for Algebraic Problem-Solving
- Using Equations as a Guide to Thinking
- Conservation of Momentum in Different Inertial Frames - One dimensional
- Conservation of Momentum in Different Inertial Frames - Two dimensional
5. analyze the characteristics of energy, and conservation of energy including friction, and gravitational potential energy.

- Internal vs. External Forces - quite a few practice questions are included
- Analysis of Situations Involving External Forces - diagrams, practice questions and animations are included
- Analysis of Situations in Which Mechanical Energy is Conserved - three good animations are included in this tutorial
- Applications and Practice Questions - fifteen questions designed to check for understanding
- Bar Chart Illustrations - A work-energy bar chart represents the amount of energy possessed by an object by means of a vertical bar.
6. relate work and power to various simple machines, mechanical advantage of different machines and recognize simple machines utilized in compound machines.

- Definition and Mathematics of Work
- Calculating the Amount of Work Done by Forces - This tutorial includes a large number of practice questions to check understanding.
- Power - a tutorial with practice questions
- An index of Work and Energy animations from the Physics Classroom
- Pulley - Investigate mechanical advantage of a pulley with this interactive java applet
- Pulley System - (raise or lower the load with the mouse) If you click on the mouse button, a spring balance will appear showing the tension in the string.
- Inclined Plane - This Java applet demonstrates a motion on an inclined plane with constant velocity and the corresponding forces.
7. describe rotational equilibrium and relate to torque.

- Rotational Equilibrium - explanation with several good illustrations and problems to work out
- Rotational Equilibrium - a 22 page lesson plan with several sheets to print for students
- Torque and Rotational Equilibrium - explanation followed by a challenge question
8. investigate projectile motion.

- An index of animation of vectors and projectiles from the Physics Classroom
- Ballistic Simulator - Each new shot has a trajectory which is color coded. You get a maximum of 4 shots to hit the target with a cannon ball
- Design and Test - This project simulates the Design and Test process through the development of a virtual paintball catapult. The student must build catapults capable of performing a variety of tasks, stay within the allotted budget, and interpret test results to fine tune their design.
- QuickTime movie of a Horizontally Launched Projectile
- QuickTime movie of a Non-Horizontally Launched Projectile
- Projectile Orbits and Satellite orbits - an interactive java applet
- NetScience: The Sum Of All Sciences - ThinkQuest site regarding projectile motion [This page comes from the Internet Archive known as the Wayback Machine .]
- Projectile Motion applet - see the result of changing the variables
- Projectile Motion Simulator - change a number of variables, projectiles include piano, pumpkin, Buick and others
- Two cannons (at different height) aim at each other. What will happen if both cannons fire at the same time?

9. utilize trigonometry and vector analysis to solve force and momentum problems.

- Resultant Vector - explore the effects of combining different vector quantities
- Vector Analysis Worksheets -
At level 3, the student is able to: 1. apply elementary calculus to solve motion problems.

- Describing Motion with Equations - There are three components of this tutorial from the Physics Classroom; The Kinematics Equations, Kinematics Equations & Problem-Solving, and Kinematics Equations & Free Fall. These are followed by Sample Problems & Solutions
- Mass, Force and Acceleration - Watch as you fill out the chart to see how mass, force, and acceleration are related. When you are done, see if you can write a rule. [use this site for data collection]
2. experiment with elastic and inelastic collisions.

- An index of momentum and collision animations from the Physics Classroom (includes elastic and inelastic collisions)
- QuickTime movies of inelastic collisions
- QuickTime movies of elastic collisions
Sample Task: Height of a Goal Post � After being introduced to the acceleration due to gravity and the equation d = 1/2gt2, students are given a baseball and a stopwatch. As an entire class, they develop a method and determine the height of the football goal posts.

- How Fast? and How Far? - Illustrations and equations from this Physics Classroom tutorial should help your class determine the height of those pesky goal posts.

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